|MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW Volume 3, Section 1 Main Page|
|Theoretical Problems of Measurement|
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Hofmann D., Linss G.:
Challenges and Chances of Internet Metrology REVIEW ARTICLE
Abstract: "Every field of endeavour, especially in engineering, is dynamic. What we taught today is discarded tomorrow. The problems don't change but our answers to them do change" 
It took hundreds of years to
• a global standard for the requirements of process-oriented quality management systems (ISO9000:2000) [www.iso.ch/iso/en/prods-services/otherpubs/Qualitymanagement.html].
• the current version of the International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology (VIM:1993) [www.iso.ch/iso/en/prods-services/otherpubs/Metrology.html]
• the current version of the International System of Units (SI:1971) [www.bipm.fr/enus/3_SI] and
• the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainties in Measurement (GUM ISO:1995) [www.iso.ch/iso/en/prods-services/otherpubs/Metrology.html].
In history of sensors & instrumentation, measurement & testing, measuring data processing & measuring data evaluation, gauging & calibration a new chapter is opened by Internet Metrology (Web Metrology, Web-based Metrology, Internet-based Metrology)).
Aim of the paper is to show, that now web-based collaboration in a customer-oriented Internet Metrology is up-to-date. Internet Metrology is a big chance especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SME) to shorten their gap in quality management in competition with large enterprises. Internet metrology is going far beyond the fundamental tasks of legal metrology but it will strengthen their power.
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Kariya K., Takayama S.:
Abstract: At present, various education systems and the stiles are concerned in each country wishing the development of society. And general saying, the society is going to progress according to the development of natural sciences and technologies. This thing is evident by the fact that the modern information society has been achieving by the development of electronic (particularly semi conductor and IC) technology, communication (particularly satellite communication) technology, and computer technology . Of course it goes without saying that there are the developments of many fundamental natural sciences and technologies on the background that was cultivated in the long time. And more the development of such society will be accelerated by the fulfillment of education that the people live in the society able to have natural scientific and technological knowledge. And the subject matters (substances) of Measurement Science are considered with very fit to such education.
In this paper, the importance of ”National Education to rise up Sense of Science and Technology through Activity of Measurement” using the subject matter of Measurement Science is shown wishing more the development of society of developing countries. Here, ”people” points the people who do not make a specialty of natural science and technology
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Halaj M., Gabko P., Kurekova E., Palenčár R.:
Abstract: Multimedia represent an integrated system, enabling contact with users, taking their attention and offering the possibility for informing them. They utilise technical means for simultaneous acting through visual tools, enabling easy and intuitive control through user friendly graphical interface. Key elements of the multimedia include static and animated graphics, sound and text, video sequences. Paper describes introduction of modern information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. Description of the international project COMET, granted by EU, focused on development of the multimedia tool for education in measurement and metrology, is presented as well.
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Abstract: Synchronisation appears if two frequency generators are coupled. Because this coupling is inevitable a frequency shifting even outside the synchronisation range leads to errors as investigated in detail in the paper. Especially the errors caused by this effect were investigated and consequences for the praxis of high-precision frequency measurement are deduced.
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Abstract: Existing classification of errors is unpractical because of its incoherence. The consequent splitting of two notions “error” and “uncertainty” removes disorder and makes designer work more clear. The basic rules for error and uncertainty reduction are presented in the paper. It is emphasised that these rule are completely different from each other.
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Szolik I., Kováč K., Smieško V.:
Abstract: The paper deals with errors, which rise up during Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) realising harmonic analysis for power quality measurements, if it is performed by digital signal processors (DSP). For FFT realisation there exist different algorithms based on the same principal but differing in the calculation operations sequence. The paper compares results obtained by radix-2 decimation in frequency and decimation in time algorithms. Then it gives possible improvements for overall error suppression.
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Ďuriš S. , Palenčár R.:
Abstract: Calibration of the standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT) in accordance with the ITS-90 (International Temperature Scale 1990) should be provided with the corresponding uncertainties. The SPRTs are calibrated in defining fixed points (DFPs) from the triple point of water (TPW) to freezing point of aluminium.. Evaluation of the uncertainties takes into account corresponding covariances. Matrix form for the propagation of the uncertainties is presented.
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Abstract: Results of examining error evaluation of the coverage factor with approximate methods in indirect measurements have been presented in the paper. The characteristics of the convolution are compared to the known characteristics of the coverage factor for the convolution of two component distributions and of the coverage factor for the normal distribution. Comparison of the results obtained with the known evaluation of these errors in direct measurements enabled to determine the change tendency of the errors of coverage factor evaluation, when the number of components of standard uncertainties grows. The knowledge of coverage factor characteristics for the convolution of four selected probability distributions was used for the research.
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Abstract: A simulation comparison of the Henze test with the extreme quantile test for testing the hypothesis that the sample is drawn from the Cauchy distribution, is presented. The results suggest that the extreme quantile test is better for the sample sizes n ≤ 50, while the Henze test is better for n ≥ 100.
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Savin A., Wimmer G., and Witkovský V.:
Abstract: In this paper we consider the Kenward-Roger method for interval estimation of the common mean — the problem which appears in interlaboratory studies but is also closely related to the multicenter clinical trials and meta-analysis. Here we present the statistical properties (based on large simulation study) of the proposed Kenward-Roger confidence intervals. The method is also illustrated by two examples.
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Holub J., Komárek M., Kříž M., Vedral J.:
Abstract: Stochastic methods for ADC (analogue-to-digital converter) tests have been developed to enable testing of precise AD converters that are difficult to test by standard methods using deterministic signal. A transportable high stable reference AD device was designed and realised for a comparison of systems for testing a dynamic quality of ADCs or AD modules using mainly those standard (deterministic) test methods. However, the stochastic test methods require different conditions and test arrangement due to large number of samples that has to be acquired during the stochastic test. This article shows results of the test and their comparison with standard tests performed on the same ADC.
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Takayama S., Kariya K.:
Abstract: Virtual instrument is the system to operate the task of measurement, data processing, monitoring and system control on one virtual platform. The remarkable characteristics are on the integration and the flexible customization. Therefore, the virtual instrument has been used by researchers and engineers as a professional engineering tool. However, by using various features of virtual world, the virtual instrument is utilized as an educational tool for students to learn measurement principle, measuring object, operation method of system and various topics concerning to the measuring. By using at experiments in education, it is expected that the learning through virtual instrument enhances intuition and motivation of students to measurement engineering. This paper describes the construction and characteristics of the educational tool by virtual instrument.
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Maghrebi R. and Masmoudi M.:
Abstract: This paper proposes a static test approach suitable for built-in-self-test (BIST) of Analog-to-digital converter Intellectual Property (IP). Static parameters (INL, DNL, gain, offset) are tested without using test equipment. The proposed BIST structure is applicable for testing models of analog-to-digital converters up to 12-bits of resolution. Comparison results with dynamic test equipment validates the proposed static test approach.
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Janiga I., Garaj I.:
Abstract: In the contribution an exact computing of the two-sided tolerance limits of normal distributions with unknown means μi and an unknown common variability σ2 are introduced. The numerical output as well as an example of its usage is given.
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Balaišis P., Eidukas D., Besakirskas A.:
Abstract: In the paper a conception of the measurement device dynamic reliability and its persistence is presented. Main electronic system features that determine persistence are singled out. There is shown how to estimate some indexes of these features.