MEASUREMENT
SCIENCE REVIEW
Volume 1, Section 1
Main
Page 


Theoretical Problems of Measurement 
 
14 
Kariya K., Takayama S.:
Expansion of
Measurement Education from Engineering to Science Abstract: Measurement
has two faces. The one is “Engineering face” and the other one is “Science
face”. The engineering face is well known as “Measurement Engineering” of
each field. But the science face which contributes to not only all scientific
fields and all engineering or technical fields but also our human life and human
society does not enough known. This paper was written as a purpose to be
recognized a fact that an act of measurement is the fundamental and
important operation on all Learning's and all Human Activities. “Measurement
Science” is a Learning to most fit in study of the fact and
“Measurement Science” should be completed as a fundamental science on
the education viewpoints.

59 
Sydenham P.:
Methodology
for Integration of Evaluation Systems in the Engineering of Large Systems Abstract:
Test and evaluation is always present in major
systems development in some form or other; it is the mechanism for establishing
if the final design satisfies the need of the customer. The traditional process
is based on a largely unaccountable and noninheritable procedure in which
localised professionalism within the various parts of the design and manufacture
organises tests. The principles of a muchimproved test and evaluation process
are outlined. They provide a sound foundation for setting up a costefficient
test programs for projects.

1114 
Woschni E.G.:
Minimisation of
Measurement Errors and Optimisation with Correcting
Procedures Abstract: At
first it is shown how measuring errors – both dynamic and statistical ones –
are depending of correcting procedures today realised without additional hardware
using instrument computers. This leads to the wellknown classical optimal filters with
minimal total errors. Then the limitations due to parameter
variations as well as to systems containing all passes were discussed. In the
second part another optimal criterion given by the information theory is used
leading to new filters: The information flow should be a maximum. Now the
optimum is shifted to higher values of the degree of correction than in the
first case.

1520 
Osanna P.H.:
Dimensional Measurements in the Nanometric Range Abstract:
Since
about 1982 new high resolution and high precision measurement methods have been
developed whereas these methods can be used especially for the evaluation of
surface topography in the nanometric range. Results of a series of experiments
are analysed and discussed. General conclusions can be drawn as very often
obtained scanning images looking like “atoms” topography structure have been
misunderstood, because it is very difficult to interpret correctly and properly
so many kinds of SPM artefacts in the imaging practice applications.

2124 
Krakovská A.:
Noise Reduction
Based on Dynamics Reconstruction Abstract:
A
new technique of noise reduction in time series is presented. First, the data
are embedded into higher dimensional state space. Then, the dynamics of the
system is approximated and data are adjusted to satisfy better the
approximations to the dynamics. It leads to noise reduction which is more
effective than traditional filtering, especially for complex time series.

2528 
Siraya T.N.:
Comparison
of Uncertainty Estimates: Allan Variance and Sample Variance Abstract:
General
scheme for estimation of errors and uncertainties is presented and discussed. Allan
variance as an important characteristic of data scatter is compared with classic
sample variance. Two approaches are outlined for investigation of Allan variance
versus sample variance. The first one is based on the testing of statistical
hypotheses, the second one is based on the functional representations of time
series.

2932 
Janiga I., Miklóš R.:
Statistical
Tolerance Intervals for a Normal Distribution Abstract:
Theory underlying statistical tolerance intervals for a normal
distribution with unknown standard deviation.

3336 
Witkovský V., Wimmer G.:
On Statistical
Models for Consensus Values Abstract:
We
consider the problem of measurements made by several laboratories (or methods)
on virtually the same object of interest. In general, the number of measurements
made at each laboratory may differ. Moreover, the laboratories may exhibit the
betweenlaboratory variability caused by the systematic error due to each
laboratory, well as different withinlaboratory variances caused by different
withinlaboratory precision of the used measurement method. In this paper we try
to describe statistical models and methods that are appropriate for derivation
of the consensus mean of the unknown (measured) value as well as related
problems concerning the statistical inference on the unknown value.

3742 
Rublík F.:
On Performance
of Multiple Comparison Methods Used in Conjunction with the KruskalWallis
Test Abstract:
It
is shown that the best choice of the multiple comparison method is the exact one
and that the Conover method possesses a high risk because it overvalues divergences
between populations ranks. The results of simulations show that in
the balanced case the asymptotic approximation of the exact critical constant is
good even for small joint sample sizes.

4346 
Kureková E.:
Measurement
Process Capability  Trends and Approaches Abstract:
A
measurement control system ensures that measuring equipment and measurement
processes are fit for their intended use and its important in achieving product
quality objectives. The following paper introduces theoretical foundations for
determination of the measuring process capability. Defines three capability
indexes in short and recommended use of the Cpm
index.

4750 
Janiga I., Miklóš R., Palenčár R.:
Computation
of Type a Uncertainty from the Normally Distributed Order Statistics Abstract:
Metrological
characteristics of a measurement instrument to be used in any statistical
process control must be found out and regularly verified. Uncertainties of
the maximum deviation between a measured value on the measuring instrument and a
value on the etalon, which are expressed as order statistics, are important. The
type A uncertainty of the normally distributed order statistic can be expressed
through the standard normal order statistic, the evaluation of which is given in
the paper.

5154 
Ptak P., Kurkowski M., Biernacki Z., Zloto T.:
Digital Measuring
System for Recording Deformed Functions Abstract:
The
paper
deals
with
the
application
of
DasyLab
software
package
for
measuring voltage and current in circuits with nonsinusoidal waveforms.
The presented procedure may be used for constructing complex measuring systems
and control systems.

5558 
Holcer R., Michaeli L., Šaliga J.:
The Test of the AD Converters Embedded on Two Microcontrollers Abstract:
Testing
method of ADC’s implemented on microcontroller chips are described in the
paper. The achieved results for microcontroller AT90S8535 and ADuC812 are
discussed too. As a criterion of ADC precision, which allows to determine the
operational condition limits, the number of effective bits has been chosen. More
over, the DNL and INL measured characteristics are presented. The results are
compared to some of the data brought out in vendors’ data sheets.

5962 
Ondrášová I., Smieško V., Setnička V.:
Contribution
to Efficiency of GPIB Instrumentation Abstract:
The
article deals with some aspects of evaluation of GPIB (IEEE488) systems
performance. Several ways how to increase the system performance are discussed.
An example of design of a measurement system used in technical diagnostics is
given. Two possible approaches are presented.

6365 
Bartkovjak J., Karovičová M.:
Approximation by Rational Functions Abstract:
The
paper deals with analytical functions or experimental measured dependencies
approximation by rational functions which is useful in the nonlinear analog
function block design, the approximation of inverse functions and calculation of
the transfer function parameters from measured data of the amplitude frequency
characteristic.

6770 
Vedral J., Holub J.:
Oscilloscope Testing by Means of Stochastic Signal
Abstract:
A new type of test signal for ADC testing has been introduced. Its practical
applicability has been proven for ADC of digitizing oscilloscope HP 54645D. The
results are comparable to the ones obtained by standard tests. The future field
of future interest will be a frequency point of view. In current state of work,
“wideband” results (ENOB) are obtained. Even it corresponds to many practical
applications of ADCs, such “wideband” description is officially stated nor in
IEEESTD1241 nor in other similar standards.

7174 
Halámek J., Viščor I., Kasal M.:
Dynamic Range and Acquisition System Abstract:
The
limitation of the dynamic range given by noise and spurious signals is
discussed. Attention is paid to the proper unit [dBFS/ Hz] in the case of noise
limitation. On the example of the acquisition system it is presented how to
determine the limiting part of the system.

7578 
Domańska A.:
AD Conversion with Dither SignalPossibilities and Limitations Abstract:
AD
conversion with dither signal may have the following aims: to improve
reconstruction (for the purposes of quantization), to reduce nonlinear
distortion, to produce increased resolution of the operation of quantization,
and to reduce the nonlinearity errors of an actual analogtodigital converter
(ADC). These advantages are achieved at the price of limiting a number of
characteristics of AD conversion systems which apply dither. There is also a
relationship between the nature of the nonlinearity of a function and the
efficiency of its reduction by means of the application of dither. The paper
discusses the mechanism of the impact of AD conversion with dither signal on the
characteristics of the operation of quantization and on certain properties of an
actual ADC.

7983 
Nalepa J.:
The"Blind" Dynamic Error Correction Method  Simulation Study for the
Firstorder Measurement Channel Abstract:
Paper
presents introductory results of simulations for a selected method of dynamical
error correction without prior knowledge of properties of measurement channel.
This task can be accomplished using a measurement system having two twin
channels which measure the same input value. This correction method can be names
 the .blind. method. In presented researches the measurement channel was
modeled as inertial first order dynamic object. The results of the study
presented in the paper confirmed the possibility of application of the
continuous dynamic systems computer simulation as a research method for
determining the parameters of the practical realization of the .blind. dynamic
error correction method. The results presented do not allow us to determine
finally these parameters; they give, however, clear hints for further search,
which will be directed to determine the effectiveness of this dynamic error
correction method.



