MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW                         Volume 3, Section 3              Main Page


Download and print the front cover  ->>


VOLUME 3,  2003

  Measurement of Physical Quantities


   1 - 4

Velasco M.,  Salas R.,  Luchsinger H.:

Analysis of the Sensitivity to the Environmental Temperature of High Accuracy Load Cells

Abstract:  In an ordinary process of measurement it’s possible that the environmental changes of temperature induce errors of measurement which exceeds the accuracy specifications of load cells. The paper describes the effects of the environmental temperature on one type of high accuracy load cells, it indicates the degree of correlation between the variations of temperature and the mass readings of the cells, and furthermore it figures out the mathematical model of its behavior. 

   5 - 8

Kruth J-P., Zhou L., Vanherck P.:

Thermal Error Analysis and Compensation of an LED-CMOS Camera 3D Measuring System

Abstract: Photogrammetry measuring systems using LED targets and CCD/CMOS cameras are gaining application in industry. Compared with conventional CMMs (coordinate measuring machines), they are easily portable, versatile and convenient to use. Like most precise measuring devices, these camera systems also suffer from performance degradation when temperature deviates from standard condition. This paper introduces research work performed on a twin-camera 3D measuring system regarding its measurement performance during environment temperature fluctuations. An artefact is developed to provide stable reference for drift identification and performance verification. This artefact is used together with temperature sensors to study the thermal drift behaviours of the camera system. A thermal drift model is built to calculate and compensate the thermal drifts. After compensation, the thermal drifts (of 3D length measurements) are reduced to approximately 30% of their original sizes in a temperature range of 9 centigrade (16.5˚C ~ 25.5˚C), which enables the measuring system to work with enhanced performance under typical industrial environments.

  9 - 12

Hain M., Bartl J., Jacko V.:

Multispectral Analysis of Cultural Heritage Artefacts

Abstract:  Several methods of nondestructive optical testing of works of art are described and analysed in the contribution. Main attention is paid to analysis of near infrared reflectography, ultraviolet fluorescence method and X-ray radiography. These methods give us possibility to reveal underdrawings in paintings, older compositions of picture, hidden signatures and retouched areas of works of art without any damage of them. 

 13 - 16

Lukošius A., Vekteris V.:

Precision of Heat Release Rate Measurement Results

Abstract: In this article the individual sources of errors are defined for the HRR calculations, with regard to the Single Burning Item (the SBI) test. The relative standard uncertainties of each quantity have been estimated and listed in tables together with their contribution to the combined relative uncertainty. The statistical analysis of the parameters HRR, FIGRA0,2MJ, FIGRA0,4MJ and their reproducibility and repeatability standard deviations have been performed.

 17 - 20

Kräuter L., Osanna P. H.:

Measurement and Quality Assurance of a New Generation of Particle Accelerator

Abstract: CERN is building the most powerful particle accelerator in the world to discover more of the secrets of matter. To reach this objective, the required magnets and detectors must be manufacture at a very high level of precision. But this is not so easy as it seems to be.

 21 - 24

Łukianowicz Cz., Karpiński T.:

Scatterometry of Ground Surfaces

Abstract: The paper presents the method for evaluation of the geometrical structure of ground surfaces by means of measurements and light scattering analysis. The most important factors affecting the spatial form of distribution of scattered light intensity were examined. The rough-estimate method for the spatial form of this distribution was presented. The experimental results obtained by this method for flat ground surfaces were provided. The way to make use of the light scattering techniques for active measurements of surface roughness in the process of tool grinding was also demonstrated.

 25 - 28

Dzapo H., Giannini R.:

Program Support for Earth Surface Potentials Measuring System 

Abstract: Substation grounding systems need to be inspected periodically to test and verify their original protective functionality and characteristics. The most important parameters are the values of touch and step voltages under fault conditions as they directly affect the on-site personnel safety. Grounding system verification is a multi-stage process, which has to be planned in details prior to actual measurements. That implies a need for an elaborated measuring methodology as well as for custom designed measuring system. Prototype of such a system has been developed and tested in the field. This paper focuses on the description of program support as a framework and foundation of a complex measuring system. Application structure, which is tightly bound to measuring methodology concepts, is presented through the typical example of system usage. Additional issues and references to accompanying measuring instrumentation are also presented.

 29 - 32

Takayama S., Kariya K.:

Autonomous Measuring by Sensing Node in Telemetry System

Abstract:  Self controlled sensor system to input signal condition, sampling and signal/data processing operates flexibly to change by measurement environment and measuring object.  In telemetry system, distributed autonomous sensor system expands the geometrical measuring range from a point to a plane.  Moreover in the local area network of sensor system by wireless communication, the autonomous sensor system enhances cooperation between systems and realizes data exchange and storage in common.  This paper describes the hardware construction and operation modes of the autonomous sensor system(sensing node) in distributed telemetry system.

 33 - 36

Bogdan M., Fita S.:

Elimination of the CCD Camera Noisein Microscopic Measurements of Machine Elements

Abstract: In this paper the fundamental tasks of a computer measuring system incorporating a CCD camera were defined. A method for the determination and elimination of camera noise using a multiple exposition approach was shown. Some research results on the level of noise and possible impacts of noise elimination were presented.

 37 - 40

Fischer J., Radil T.:

Simple Methods of Edge Position Measurement Using Shadow Projected on CCD Sensor

Abstract: The position of an object can be determined from its shadow projected on a CCD sensor without lens. A collimated light beam is usually used to illuminate the measured object. In this paper a method that applies a point light source is compared with this commonly used method. Results and applicability for simple position measurement are discussed.

 41 - 44

Yurshevich V., Lomov S.:

Measurement of Magnetic Spectra of Ferrites: Introducing a Correction for Ferrites Dielectric Parameters

Abstract: At measurement of magnetic spectra of high-permeability ferrites with highly pronounced dielectric properties the frequency-depended systematic error of absorption curve µ2(f) determination appears if the influence of electrical field induced in core is not accounted. It is ascertained that this error may reach 10¸20% which is greater than measurement error of many methods. The way of the error reducing, associated with the calculation of the part of dielectric and conductive losses in total (measured) losses, is proposed. In these calculations the known distribution of components of electromagnetic field in toroidal core is used. After corresponding correction the absorption curve more precisely characterizes just the magnetic losses.

 45 - 48

Havlíček V., Pokorný M.:

Measurement of Power Losses at AC Magnetization

Abstract: Magnetic measurements represent relatively difficult area of the electrical engineering. Classical measurements have been done for the closed specimens but the modern AC measurement should be realized for open steel sheets and strips. For these measurements it is necessary to keep the prescribed conditions. The total error of any magnetic measurement depends on the exciting field error, the error of the magnetic to electric variables conversion and the error of integral electric values measurement. Research team from the Dept. of Circuit Theory of the Czech Technical University has developed original compensation method improving the quality of the open specimens magnetizing. The original method of MMF compensation allows measurement of the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The method accuracy is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. The digitalisation of the compensation loop and the convenient processing of the error signal can improve rapidly the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in the paper.

 49 - 52

Adamski W., Kitliński M.:

Errors Caused by Microwave Part of the Microwave Heating System

Abstract: Principle of operation and construction of the system to scientific research of microwave heating are briefly presented in the paper. The error components caused by real parameters of microwave part of the measurement system as well as a RSS uncertainty of the system are analysed. 

 53 - 56

Andris P., Szomolányi P., Strolka I., Banič B., Bačiak L., Weis J., Jellúš V., Frollo I.:

Two Approaches to Measurement of the Signal Frequency in NMR Based Magnetic Field Stabiliser

Abstract: The phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in a water sample was used for magnetic field stabilisation. Signal processing from the NMR probe is performed in digital way to prevent drifts and distortions in circuits for analogue signals processing. The signal is analysed with FFT and the frequency deviation to the desired frequency of the highest peak is taken as a ground for the control. Basing on a theoretical analysis the circuit diagram has been selected and the first sample of the stabiliser with digital signal processing has been constructed. Such type of stabiliser can be used for magnetic field stability of NMR scanners with permanent or resistive magnets increasing.

 57 - 60

Andris P. and Frollo I.:

Matching of RF Coils for NMR Measurements Using Inductors

Abstract:  For Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments radiofrequency tuned coils are used for both the RF excitation and NMR signal detection. Matching RF coils with circuits using capacitors is lossless but some conditions must be achieved. If it is not possible a modification of the circuit with an inductor instead of one capacitor can be used sometimes. Elements of the circuit are calculated and some parameters of the circuit are graphically depicted. The resulting signal-to-noise ratio is calculated and compared with the circuit consisting of capacitors.

 61 - 64

Senaj V., Guillot G., Darrasse L.:

Stabilisation and Acceleration of Magnetic Field Gradients

Abstract: Implementation of hyperpolarized 3He MRI for lung imaging needs fast acquisition and ADC mapping methods, which put severe requirements on the gradient system performance in term of speed, spatial homogeneity and reproducibility. An upgrade of the gradient system consisting of reproducibility improvement of the current source, accurate pre-emphasis adjustment and gradient commutation speeding is hereby described.

 65 - 69

Vejdělek J., Ďaďo S.:

Auto-balancing System for Measurement of Extremely Small Changes of High Impedances

Abstract: The paper is devoted to the description and experience with the equipment for the measurement of permittivity of gases. As the relative permittivities of gases are very close to 1 and sensors for this purpose have the capacity in order of pF, this measuring task leads in fact to the measurement of extremely small changes (1 ppm from the range) of extremely high impedances

 71 - 74

Moskowicz S.:

Fluxgate Sensor with a Special Permalloy Core - Construction and Investigation

Abstract: In the paper the operating principle and basic parameters of a special core fluxgate-based transducer to measure a static magnetic field is described. A theoretical analysis has been made and an approximate transduction function has been derived. The presented results of tests carried out on a transducer model testify that the device in question is distinguished by a high and easily adjustable sensitivity and a linear transduction characteristic.

 75 - 78

Bartušek K.,  Dokoupil Z.:

Automatic Device for Ion Fields Measurement

Abstract:  Concentration of light negative ions in the atmosphere has a favourable influence on the human health. For better exactness of measurement of ion fields concentration in living and working rooms and for elimination of the influence of a servicing person an automatic measurement device has been designed and completed exploiting the aspiration measurement method. The main emphasis has been put on realisation of the electronic source of polarisation voltage with desired properties. Comparative measurement with use of different types of sources has been carried out and the long-term measurement of light air ions in laboratory has been documented.

 79 - 82

Ondris L., Krushinsky D., Frolov E., Gorchenko V., Kirichenko A., Kovalenko A.,   Sveshnikov B., Volkov V.:

Charged Particle Beams Space Parameters Measuring System for Low Intensity Levels

Abstract: The system using a multi-wire proportional chamber in counting regime for the space parameters measurement of Nuclotron accelerator extracted beams at low intensity levels was developed. As the preamplifiers are used fast operational amplifiers, as shapers serve fast comparators with lock-in input and counter system is built on the base of the programmable logic arrays. For control and communication serves the built-in single board computer. In this contribution description of this measuring system and measured parameters of system are given. As an example a measured beam parameters are also mentioned.

 83 - 86

Portman V.T., Rubenchik Y.L.:

Uncertainty Assessment of the Geometric Accuracy of the 2D Machined Profile

Abstract:  Statistical properties of the assessments of the geometric accuracy of the machined profile are investigated in this work. The cases when a distribution of the measured deviations differs from the normal distribution are especially considered. Among such cases, of fundamental importance is the case when the deviations of the profile described in the form of the Fourier series expansion represented by a sum of few harmonics. A set of the point positions within the minimum zone is considered as a random sampling, and the width of the minimum zone presents the sampling range. Additionally, information about the power spectrum of the measured profile is applied for numerical estimations of the uncertainty of the measured profile. As an application example, statistical properties of the deviations of the 2D machined (milled or ground) profile are considered. This case is characterized by an interesting interrelation of the uncertainty components caused by cumulative error and cycle error deviations. 

 87 - 90

Jablonski J., Pawlowski S., Liubimov V.:

3D-numerical Model of Surface after Laser Machining

Abstract:  The paper presents digitally created 3D model of metal surface. This surface has stationary and ergodic character. Its model represents surface after laser treatment. Cross-sections 2D are quasi-periodic. Fractal structure was imposed on the surface. Abbot-Firestone  Pmr(c) and height distribution curves z(x) in 2D and 3D systems (according to ISO 4287-2000) were analysed.

 91 - 94

Bogdan M., Fita S.:

Measurement of the Geometry of the Transverse Cross-section of a Railway

Abstract:  In this paper a design of a device for the measurement of the transverse cross-section geometry of a railway (especially railhead) using the virtual method has been presented. The procedure for the determination of the geometry consists in the approximation of the adjacent points of the railhead profile with a circle of a given radius. Based upon this approximation and the co-ordinate system given, the point of contact between the spherical measuring tip and the measured surface is determined.

 95 - 98

Ďuriš S. , Ranostaj J., Knorová R.:

Realization of the Temperature Scale in the SMU, Present Situation and Future Vision

Abstract:  The temperature scale in the SMU is realised in accordance with the ITS - 90 (International Temperature Scale 1990) in the temperature range from –39 °C up to 960 °C. Improvement of the temperature scale assurance is the permanent task and it is connected with the decreasing of the uncertainties. During the last years arose the needs to extend the scale up to –180 °C. The situation in this field is described in the following contribution. 

 99 - 102

Zloto T., Biernacki Z.:

An Optoelectronic Sensor in the Measurements of the Temperature of a Pump Cylinder Block

Abstract:  In the paper a method is presented for remote measuring the temperature of a cylinder block in a piston axial pump. The method employs an electronic measuring system with an optoelectronic sensor, designed be the authors. The functioning principle, the component subsystems, and the accuracy of the measuring system are discussed. The results are also presented of measuring temperature increments in the kinematic pair piston - cylinder, depending on the parameters of pump operation. 

103 - 106

Biernacki Z., Zloto T.:

Examination of Metrological Properties of the Wave Thermoanemometer System

Abstract:  The paper deals with the Wave Thermoanemometer System developed and constructed on the basis of the author’s own design. The Wave Thermoanemometer (WTS) is based on Kovasznay’s idea of measuring the transit time of thermal markers drifted by the flowing medium (e.g. gas) on the a priori known interval Dl, which is a construction constant of the measuring converter. The scope of the investigation includes model studies with the use of computer simulation techniques as well as experiments on a laboratory stand. The paper concentrates mainly on the model studies with the use of adequate mathematical methods.

107 - 110

Iaquinta J., Fouilloux A.:

A Differential Scattering Probe for Monitoring Road Surfaces

Abstract:  This paper describes an approach we suggest to monitor pavements by using an active optical device. Basically, the amount of light received by such sensors depends on superficial conditions, for which studying some specific traits of scattering indicatrices can bring substantial information. With this objective in sight, the major physical processes originating in the observed back-scattering and opposition effect are simulated. It is shown that several estimators, possibly derived from scattering measurement, are strongly correlated to the macro-texture of the surface. A comparison between computed and measured reflectances is followed by a description of the way planed to turn to account this statement to design a roughness-meter.

111 - 114

Odon A.:

Probe with PVDF Sensor for Energy Measurements of Optical Radiation

Abstract: A concept of an inexpensive PVDF pyroelectric radiation sensor of large aperture is described. The design details of the pyroelectric sensor based on the PVDF polymer are given. The construction of the amplifier of the pyroelectric sensor signal is presented. The  photoresponse of PVDF sensor  to short radiation pulses is studied experimentally

115 - 117

Koňakovský A., Cigáň A., Maňka J., Buchta Š.:

Simultaneous Measurement of the Resistance and Inductance Transition Characteristics of the HTc Superconductors

Abstract:  The cryogenic probe and the automatic apparatus for study of transition properties of HTc superconductors using the contacting measurement method and the inductive measurement method based on the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect were developed. It is shown, that these two methods can lead to consistent results in Tc measurements, however, in general they yield complementary information.

119 - 122

Starczak M.,  Jakubiec W.:

Optimisation Model of Measuring Strategy on CMM

Abstract:  An attempt to formal description of the procedure of optimisation of measuring strategy on CMM was made. A set of feasible solutions, constrains and objective function were defined. Chosen steps of optimisation were described. An example of documenting of measuring strategy was given.

123 - 126

Jankauskas Z., Kvedaras V., Laurinavicius L.:

The Measurements of Carrier Density and Mobility in Magnetised Materials by the Help of Helicon Maser

Abstract:   A new measurement method of the carrier density and mobility in metals and semiconductors by the help of magnetoplasmic helicon waves in magnetised solid-state plasma is proposed. The helicons in this case are excited by radio frequencies f1 (the range 100 – 600 MHz) much higher than the helicon resonator frequency f2 (the range of 20 MHz). From the frequency f2 and the resonance bandwidth the carrier density and mobility may be obtained. It is expedient to call such a device a sort of helicon maser and a high radio frequency electromagnetic field the pumping field. In full analogy with maser (o laser) the semiconductor sample plays a role of the active material and the cable line – of the resonator. In the experimental device the semiconductor n- InSb was used for the active material. The constant magnetic field varied within the interval  0-23 T.

127 - 130

Anilionis R., Bagdanavičius N., Eidukas D., Kilius Š.:

Statistical Modeling of Bipolar Transistor Technological Parameters

Abstract:   Thickness of base is a important technological - constructive parameter of BjT technology, which define such high temperature processes: diffusion of base, oxidation for formation of emitter windows, diffusion of emitter and oxidation for formation of contactical windows. Reciprocally these technological processes determine the thickness of base Wb. That is why are BjT technology and its special processes – diffusion and oxidation, calculation methods of base thickness too, examined. A perfect model for calculation of dash distribution in base and emitter areas is presented. It was calculated whit program MathCAD 2000 Professional. Estimating all high temperature processes is a change of base thickness shown.

131 - 134

M. Grzelka, M. Rucki:

Analysis of the Accuracy of the Gears’ Measurement with the CMM

Abstract:  Producers of the co-ordinate measuring machines (CMM) deliver many additional measuring programs for the special purposes. There are programs for the measurement of the gears. It is of great importance to carry out the accurate metrological analysis of the measuring process and the final error of the gears’ measurement with the CMM. Because it appeared impossible to analyze existing algorithms, the author created his own version and carried out the precise metrological analysis of the accuracy of basic gears’ deviations measurement. The proposed algorithms, software and metrological analysis of the CMM’s gears measurement accuracy is a basis for the complex measurement of the gears. The complex measuring method includes modern measuring devices and single flank measurement simulation. The final results are cinematic and dynamic deviations of the gear, the complex parameters describing the whole gear.

135 - 138

P. Swornowski, M. Rucki:

The Errors Occuring in the CMM Fitting Method 

Abstract:  The characteristics of the errors in the software of the Co-ordinate Measuring Machines is very iomportant from the metrological point of view. When the number of measuring points is small, the error grows, beaceuse of the lack of stability in the approximation area of the interpolation methods. The tests hd been performed for different fitting methods: Gauss, Tschebyscheff, inscribed and circumscribed circles. 

139 - 142

L. Syrová, R. Ravas, J. Grman:

Use of Statistical Approach for Classification of Visualized Transparent Polymeric Foils

Abstract:   The contribution treats the topic of processing the experimentally gained information on the properties of optically transparent polymeric foils. Schlieren optical system was used to examine and visualize refractive index distribution. Statistical approach enables a useful classification of different types of foils into classes. Experimental results and their statistical interpretation are presented as well.

143 - 146

M. Bittera, J. Hallon, V. Smieško:

Measurement and Simulation of Field Homogenity Inside Semi-anechoic Chamber

Abstract:   Nowadays in EMC area shielded rooms especially semi-anechoic chambers are used for EMI testing more often than open area test sites. To determine how the semianechoic chambers replace free-space test sites an unusual method of field homogenity determination by using field mapping measurements as well as simulations is described in this paper. The obtained results are compared with theoretical requirements.

147 - 150

S. Adamczak, D. Janecki :

The Complex Profilometric Measurement of Non-Closed Form Profiles of Machine Parts

Abstract:   Most methods of measurement used until now concern closed profiles. In practice, however, mating surfaces are frequently incomplete and their profiles determined in certain cross-sections are non-closed. For such profiles we need to use special instruments. Of particular interest are profilometric ones characterized by a wide measuring range. They can be applied to complex evaluation of the geometrical surface structure including form profiles, surface waviness and surface roughness. This group of measuring media is quite numerous but the Form Talysurf made by Taylor-Hobson is the most popular one. Previous models of this instrument need modernizing by coupling to a computer equipped with a special program PROFORM. The program enables us to perform a complex analysis of the geometrical state of the superficial layer including all types of surface irregularities. Additionally, the program makes it possible to determine the geometrical dimensions of the measured testpiece.

151 - 154

Drahoš P., Čičáková O.:

Measurement of SMA Drive Characteristics

Abstract:   SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) drive has the behavior of the non-linear, hysteresis and dynamic system with many parameters. This system has changeable delay time and depends on initial conditions and motion direction. Transitions between inner hysteresis loops depend on the previous states – the SMA memory. Considering the complexity of conditions, failure effects and quantity of parameters, the SMA drive qualities measurements by programmable digital measuring devices with GPIB communication was automated.

155 - 158

Laurinavicius L., Novickij J., Jankauskas Z.:

Express Measurements of Electrical Properties of Semiconductors in a Pulsed Magnetic Field

Abstract:  The  progress  of  electrical  engineering  and  electronics  has  demanded  the  application of  new  materials  in  device design. New  technological  processes  allows  to  obtain thin films, monocrystal and policrystal samples of modern semiconductor materials. Electrical parameters of semiconductors should be tested constantly to provide the high quality of semiconductor devices. In  this area  express  methods  for  testing  electrical  properties of semiconductors  are  successfully  used.  The  main  requirement  for  devices  using for express  testing  is a short time of measurements. Testing large batches of semiconductor samples,  the  simple  operation  of  the  device  and  the quick replacement of tested samples are very actual.  Sometimes the compromise is done  to obtain a quick testing of semiconductors  instead  precise  measurements.  Relative errors  of  ± (10 to 20) % are acceptable for express measurements in most cases of non-destructive testing. Often high frequency resonators and microstrip lines are applied for express measurements of electrical properties of semiconductors because of their simple operation. A high  frequency  field of these devices is interacted with charge carriers of semiconductor sample and contactless measurements of resistivity, concentration, mobility  of  free  charge  carriers  of semiconductors can be realized.

159 - 162

Kvedaras V., Jankauskas Z.:

Measurements of Propagation Delay Times of High-speed Logic Ics

Abstract:   The new tester for the measurement of the propagation delay times in high-speed IC logic by the use of multichannel sample converter is considered. The multichannel sample converter is a rather simple device with a small level of internal noise and was developed on the basis of peak detecting sample converter with two quartz generators. The two models of the tester is developed and researched. The measurement error of propagation delay times does not exceed ± 5%.

163 - 167

Ravas R., Syrová L., Grman J.:

Analysis of Selected Factors in the Diagnostic Testing of Optically Transparent Polymeric Foils

Abstract:  The contribution treats the topic of selected factors that influence the quality of imaging  of optically transparent polymeric foil by the schlieren visualization methods. One of the ways how to influence the resulting quality of the image gained by the visualization methods is  the correction of brightness inhomogeneity of the image. Quality of images is a very important assumption  when to use the quantitative methods of evaluation of foils images.