MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW                       Volume 7,  Section 1                  Main Page

SECTION 1                            Download and print the front cover  ->>   VOLUME 7,  2007

  Theoretical Problems of Measurement

 No. 1




Osanna P.H., Durakbasa N.M., Kräuter L., Güclü E.:

A Modern Scheme for Education, Training and Certification of Metrology and Measurement Technique Personnel                                               REVIEW ARTICLE

Abstract: This contribution describes the importance of certification of personnel working both in the fields of metrology and quality assurance on the one side in industry and economics in general and on the other side in any other kind of organisations both in the service and in the public domain. In Europe exists a harmonised scheme for the international registration and certification of quality personnel that is fully recognised between more than thirty countries throughout whole Europe and similar educational activities have already been proposed recently for education in metrology and to train metrology personnel and experts in the field of metrology.
This harmonised scheme can be taken as example to organise education in the field of metrology. The Department for Interchangeable Manufacturing and Industrial Metrology of Vienna University of Technology (TU-Wien) is one of the only two organisations in Austria being accredited for the registration and certification of quality personnel. This is insofar important for a University department as this opens new possibilities for educational
processes at Universities.

Keywords:  metrology, quality management, quality personnel, accreditation, certification,
harmonised scheme, coordinate metrology



Regtien P.P.L.:

Metrology as part and parcel of training programmes for science and engineering

                                                                                                                                 REVIEW ARTICLE

Abstract:  At many universities and training institutes education in metrology or measurement science is in strong competition with upcoming disciplines. Its importance for science and engineering remains, however, evident. Advanced instruments make measuring almost a routine activity, but it is shown that a critical approach when performing and evaluating measurements is still of vital importance.

Keywords: education, measurement science,  metrology


 No. 2




Štolc S., Bajla I.:

Improved accuracy of band detection in GASepo system for quantitative analysis of images in Epo doping control

Abstract: This In the year 2003, World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) initiated an international project with the goal to develop a suitable and easy to use software system aimed at the standardized quantitative analysis of digital images acquired during the process of erythropoietin (Epo) doping control. Within the cooperation between Austrian Research Centers GmbH and Institute of Measurement Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, improved image preprocessing method has been developed. The proposed method – Band Straightening Algorithm (BSA) – significantly reduces local geometric distortions in Epo images that cause band detection problems, especially incases with geometrically distorted and disrupted bands. The accuracy of the band detection is one of the most critical points of the Epo image analysis. In the year 2006, the proposed method has been implemented in the latest release of the software package GASepo 2.1, which is used in Doping-Control laboratories worldwide.

Keywords:  Epo doping control, image segmentation, band detection, image filtering, geometrical distortion correction, correlation analysis



Hofmann D., Linss G.:

Metrological Challenges for Quality Measurements with Vision Sensors

Abstract: Vision sensors are innovative measurement systems for visual quality control with digital imaging. Vision sensors are convenient, reliable and affordable. Their bulk application is forthcoming. Unreliable measurements with vision sensors are possible due to unreflected error sources. Aim ot the paper is to call attention to particular features of optical measurements to reduce operating errors by undefined metrological standards for micro
scales, unfavorable lighting conditions, suboptimal selection of magnification, lens manufacturing errors, construction of the objective, unknown sensor characteristics and unknown algorithms of the embedded computers. To reduce the risks of operating errors modern Internet portals provide visualized e-lectures for real-time eduction and self-learning.
Keywords: vision sensors, measurement error, quality measurements, self-learning


 No. 3



23-26 Dudek E., Mosiadz M., Orzepowski M.:

Uncertainties of resistors temperature coefficients

Abstract: Resistors calibration gives high level of measurement accuracy. Analysis of results and uncertainty budget should consider influence of temperature changes on resistance. Article describes resistors temperature properties, influence of temperature changes for results, and influence of temperature coefficients uncertainties for uncertainty budget.
Keywords: standard resistor, temperature coefficient, uncertainty



Palenčár R., Halaj M., Kureková E.:

Evaluation of the Positional Deviation of Numerically Controlled Axes

Abstract: Nowadays many modern production machines require positioning in thousandths of millimeter. Therefore a big attention must be paid to prepare such a controlling software that drives individual axes of the production machine which minimises deviations between the desired position and actually reached position. The so called positional deviation (difference between the actual and target position) belongs to the important criteria that describe the performance of numerically controlled axes. The procedure for determination of such deviation is described in the international standard ISO 230-2:1997. This standard provides calculation of the positional deviation only in several discrete (measuring) points. Moreover it does not consider effects of the measuring instrument on the obtained results. Thus the new methodology must be adopted that enables estimation of the positional deviation in any point of the axis travel, together with the uncertainty of such estimate. Obtained results can be incorporated into a control system in the form of corrections enhancing positioning possibilities of individual axes.
Keywords: numerically controlled axis, positional deviation, measurement uncertainty, estimation theory


 No. 4




Cimermanová K.:

Estimation of Confidence Intervals for the Log-normal Means and for the Ratio and the Difference of Log-normal Means with Application of Breath Analysis

Abstract: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Breath analysis is a possible diagnostic tool for early detection of lung and esophageal cancer (for more details consult e.g. the FP6 project of European Commission BAMOD – Breath-gas analysis for molecular oriented detection of minimal diseases). In this paper we deal with estimating generalized confidence intervals for the ratio and the difference of log-normal means, which are based on generalized pivotal quantities. We provide series of computer simulations and apply this method to the breath analysis data. We present the estimated 95% generalized confidence intervals for the ratio and the difference of mean concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds for patients with lung cancer and healthy volunteers. From results we would like to find potential bio-marker of lung cancer.

Keywords: breath compounds, confidence intervals, generalized pivotal approach, generalized pivotal quantities



Kamenský M., Kováč K.:

Iterative method and averaging for measurement error correction

Abstract: Iterative method of measurement error correction is presented. The method is useful for digital measurements e.g. for successive approximation ADC. In this case method impact on accuracy could be enhanced using oversampling and averaging as proved on the basis of experimental results with evaluation of ENOB and SNR.

Keywords: measurement error correction, iterative method, oversampling


 No. 5




Mocak J., Janiga I., Rievaj M., Bustin D.:

The use of fractional differentiation or integration for signal improvement

Abstract: Differentiation or integration with fractional order (differintegration) is favourable mainly in the form of the semiintegral or semiderivative of the original measured signal. It is used for substantial improvement of the signal shape and, consequently, the way how the measurement is evaluated. In the case of semidifferentiation also a better signal resolution is observed. A new, effective GS numerical algorithm of differintegration is here presented.

Keywords: signal shape, fractional differentiation, fractional integration



Somorčík J.:

Performance of some spatial median tests under elliptical symmetry

Abstract: Finite sample performance of two non-affine invariant multi-sample location parameter tests based on spatial medians is studied by simulations in case of spherically symmetric distributions of the samples. We demonstrate that the decrease of the powers of the tests in case of extreme ellipticity depends also on the distances of the true location parameters. It is also shown how can the ellipticity of the samples have also a positive effect.

Keywords: multi-sample location problem, spatial median, spherical and elliptical symmetry, affine invariance, power of test


 No. 6




Gawędzki W.:

Comparison of Self-Calibration Methods for Measurement Channels in Respect

of a Method of Conversion Functions Interpolation

Abstract: The paper suggests algorithms enabling self-calibration of measurement channels with linear as well as nonlinear conversion functions. To approximate conversion characteristics interpolation methods are used. They are widely known, however the essence of the suggested selfcalibration method is current modernization of interpolating functions parameters due to suitable procedure. It enables correction of the two essential error components, which may appear in the measurement channel, by means of evaluating of the current value of the real slope of the conversion characteristic as well as of the components describing nonlinearity generated (or modified) by disturbing factors. In the paper methods of self-calibration for measurement channels cooperating with non-electrical quantities sensors have been compared. Interpolation of conversion functions has been assumed as linear in intervals and polynomial.
Keywords: self-calibration, non-electrical monitoring, sensors, interpolation



Arendacká B.:

Fiducial Generalized Pivots for a Variance Component vs. an Approximate Confidence Interval

Abstract: The paper is devoted to comparison of different confidence intervals for a variance component corresponding to the random factor in mixed linear models with two variance components. Namely, generalized confidence intervals (based on fiducial generalized pivots (FGP), see Hannig et al. (2006)) are compared to an approximate solution suggested by El-Bassiouni (1994). We focus on FGPs of certain types that were shown to yield exact intervals in some limiting situations. This makes them more equivalent counterparts to the El-Bassiouni’s interval, if frequentist properties are the main concern. A simulation study is presented that reveals, how besides sharing the limiting properties, these FGPs and the mentioned approximate interval perform with respect to each other. We also comment on a relationship between the considered types of FGPs.
Keywords: mixed linear model, fiducial generalized pivots, variance components, approximate confidence



Witkovsky V., Wimmer G.:

Confidence Interval for Common Mean in Interlaboratory Comparisons with Systematic Laboratory Biases

Abstract: We consider the problem of evaluation of the measurement results from the interlaboratory comparisons in metrology. It is assumed that the laboratories have either normally, uniformly, or triangularly distributed systematic errors (biases). We propose an approximate interval estimator for the common mean, i.e. the true value of the measurand. The empirical coverage probabilities of the suggested interval estimator were estimated and compared by large Monte Carlo simulations for different experimental designs. The suggested approach is based on a metrological methodology and is fully consistent with the Supplement 1 to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement - Propagation of Distributions Using a Monte Carlo Method.
Keywords: Common mean, interlaboratory comparisons, key comparisons; key comparison reference
value KCRV, expanded uncertainty, confidence interval