MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW            Volume 14       

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No. 1

No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 No. 6  

  Measurement of Physical Quantities



A. Gąska, D. Szewczyk, P. Gąska, M. Gruza, J. Sładek:

Usage of I++ Simulator to Program Coordinate Measuring Machines when Common Programming Methods are difficult to apply

Abstract: Nowadays, simulators facilitate tasks performed daily by the engineers of different branches, including coordinate metrologists. Sometimes it is difficult or almost impossible to program a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) using standard methods. This happens, for example, during measurements of nano elements or in cases when measurements are performed on high-precision (accurate) measuring machines which work in strictly air-conditioned spaces and the presence of the operator in such room during the programming of CMM could cause an increase in temperature, which in turn could make it necessary to wait some time until conditions stabilize. This article describes functioning of a simulator and its usage during Coordinate Measuring Machine programming in the latter situation. Article also describes a general process of programming CMMs which ensures the correct machine performance after starting the program on a real machine. As an example proving the presented considerations, measurement of exemplary workpiece, which was performed on the machine working in the strictly air-conditioned room, was described.    



Ziqiang Cui, Chengyi Yang, Benyuan Sun, Huaxiang Wang:

Liquid Film Thickness Estimation using Electrical Capacitance Tomography

Abstract: In air/oil lubrication systems, the flow parameters, e.g., flow pattern, liquid film thickness, and air/oil flow rate, are of great importance to the transportation efficiency. In most cases, the on-going two-phase flow is annular flow with the oil moving along the tube wall and the air travelling at high speed in the center. This usually results in the formation of a thin oil film, the thickness of which is a key parameter determining the efficiency of the lubrication system. As the oil film thickness of the on-going air/oil flow varies dynamically, there is actually no applicable method for a non-intrusive test. In this paper, the use of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) to investigate the air/oil flow has been studied. Capacitance measurements are made from an externally mounted electrode array in a non-invasive and non-intrusive manner. Both average and distributed oil film thicknesses can be calculated from the reconstructed ECT images. Simulation and experimental results show that the ECT technique can provide satisfactory results of online oil film thickness estimation.



K. Y. You, Z. Abbas, M. F. A. Malek, E. M. Cheng:

Non-destructive Dielectric Measurements and Calibration for Thin Materials Using Waveguide-Coaxial Adaptors

Abstract: This paper focuses on the calibration of apertures for rectangular waveguides using open-short-load (OSL) standards and transmission-line (TL) approaches. The reflection coefficients that were measured using both calibration techniques were compared with the coefficients acquired using the thru-reflect-line (TRL) method. In this study, analogous relationships between the results of OSL calibration and TL calibration were identified. In the OSL calibration method, the theoretical, open-standard values are calculated from quasi-static integral models. The proposed TL calibration procedure is a simple, rapid, broadband approach, and its results were validated by using the OSL calibration method and by comparing the results with the calculated integral admittance. The quasi-static integral models were used to convert the measured reflection coefficients to relative permittivities for the infinite samples and the thin, finite samples.



M. Ryabko, S. Koptyaev, A. Shcherbakov, A. Lantsov:

Interferometer -based Technology for Optical Nanoscale Inspection

Abstract: We demonstrate the interferometer-based approach for nanoscale grating Critical Dimension (CD) measurements and prove the possibility to achieve no worse than 10 nm accuracy of measurements for 100 nm pitch gratings. The approach is based on phase shift measurement of light fields specularly reflected from periodical pattern and adjacent substrate with subsequent comparison between experimental and simulation results. RCWA algorithm is used to fit the measured results and extract the CD value. It is shown that accuracy of CD value measurement depends rather on the grating’s CD/pitch ratio than its CD value.



Su Jun, Orest Kochan:

Investigations of Thermocouple Drift Irregularity Impact on Error of their Inhomogeneity Correction

Abstract: The article examines: (i) the reasons of error due to thermoelectric inhomogeneity of electrodes of thermocouples acquired during prolonged use; (ii) the neural network method of error correction based on a generalization of verification results in several temperature fields; (iii) the method of investigating the impact of changing the speed of the conversion characteristic drift of thermocouple on error correction; (iv) results of this investigation. It is shown that residual error for type K thermocouples at the 5 % level of significance does not exceed μ±0.46 ºС and one at the 10 % level of significance does not exceed ±0.25 °С.



I. Štubňa, P. Šín, A. Trník, L. Vozár:

Measuring the Flexural Strength of Ceramics at Elevated Temperatures – An Uncertainty Analysis

Abstract: The flexural mechanical strength was measured at room and elevated temperatures on green ceramic samples made from quartz electroporcelain mixture. An apparatus exploited the three-point-bending mechanical arrangement and a magazine for 10 samples that are favorable at the temperature measurements from 20 °C to 1000 °C. A description of the apparatus from the point of possible sources of uncertainties is also given. The uncertainty analysis taking into account thermal expansion of the sample and span between the supports is performed for 600 °C. Friction between the sample and supports as well as friction between mechanical parts of the apparatus is also considered. The value of the mechanical strength at the temperature of 600 °C is 13.23 ± 0.50 MPa, where the second term is an expanded standard uncertainty. Such an uncertainty is mostly caused by inhomogeneities in measured samples. The biggest part of the uncertainty arises from the repeatability of the loading force which reflects a scatter of the sample properties. The influence of the temperature on the uncertainty value is very small.



Yaqing Tu, Huiyue Yang, Haitao Zhang, Xiangyu Liu:

CMF Signal Processing Method Based on Feedback Corrected ANF and Hilbert Transformation

Abstract: In this paper, we focus on CMF signal processing and aim to resolve the problems of precision sharp-decline occurrence when using adaptive notch filters (ANFs) for tracking the signal frequency for a long time and phase difference calculation depending on frequency by the sliding Goertzel algorithm (SGA) or the recursive DTFT algorithm with negative frequency contribution. A novel method is proposed based on feedback corrected ANF and Hilbert transformation. We design an index to evaluate whether the ANF loses the signal frequency or not, according to the correlation between the output and input signals. If the signal frequency is lost, the ANF parameters will be adjusted duly. At the same time, singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm is introduced to reduce noise. And then, phase difference between the two signals is detected through trigonometry and Hilbert transformation. With the frequency and phase difference obtained, time interval of the two signals is calculated. Accordingly, the mass flow rate is derived. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method always preserves a constant high precision of frequency tracking and a better performance of phase difference measurement compared with the SGA or the recursive DTFT algorithm with negative frequency contribution.



Makoto Fukuda, Masato Hayashi, Sintaro Marita:

Generating Sub-nanometer Displacement Using Reduction Mechanism Consisting of Torsional Leaf Spring Hinges

Abstract: Recent demand on the measurement resolution of precise positioning comes up to tens of picometers. Some distinguished researches have been performed to measure the displacement in picometer order, however, few of them can verify the measurement performance as available tools in industry. This is not only because the picometer displacement is not yet required for industrial use, but also due to the lack of standard tools to verify such precise displacement.

We proposed a displacement reduction mechanism for generating precise displacement using torsional leaf spring hinges (TLSHs) that consist of four leaf springs arranged radially. It has been demonstrated that a prototype of the reduction mechanism was able to provide one-nanometer displacement with 1/1000 reduction rate by a piezoelectric actuator. In order to clarify the potential of the reduction mechanism, a displacement reduction table that can be mounted on AFM stage was newly developed using TLSHs. This paper describes the design of the reduction mechanism and the sub-nanometer displacement performance of the table obtained from its dynamic and static characteristics measured by displacement sensors and from the AFM images.


No. 2  

  Theoretical Problems of Measurement



Barbora Arendacká, Angelika Täubner, Sascha Eichstädt, Thomas Bruns and Clemens Elster:

Linear mixed models: GUM and beyond             Invited paper

Abstract: In Annex H.5, the Guide to the Evaluation of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) [1] recognizes the necessity to analyze certain types of experiments by applying random effects ANOVA models. These belong to the more general family of linear mixed models that we focus on in the current paper. Extending the short introduction provided by the GUM, our aim is to show that the more general, linear mixed models cover a wider range of situations occurring in practice and can be beneficial when employed in data analysis of long-term repeated experiments. Namely, we point out their potential as an aid in establishing an uncertainty budget and as means for gaining more insight into the measurement process. We also comment on computational issues and to make the explanations less abstract, we illustrate all the concepts with the help of a measurement campaign conducted in order to challenge the uncertainty budget in calibration of accelerometers.


  Measurement of Physical Quantities


Linus Michaeli, Ján Šaliga:

Error Models of the Analog to Digital Converters       Invited paper 

Abstract: Error models of the Analog to Digital Converters describe metrological properties of the signal conversion from analog to digital domain in a concise form using few dominant error parameters. Knowledge of the error models allows the end user to provide fast testing in the crucial points of the full input signal range and to use identified error models for post correction in the digital domain. The imperfections of the internal ADC structure determine the error characteristics represented by the nonlinearities as a function of the output code. Progress in the microelectronics and missing information about circuital details together with the lack of knowledge about interfering effects caused by ADC installation prefers another modeling approach based on the input-output behavioral characterization by the input-output error box. Internal links in the ADC structure cause that the input-output error function could be described in a concise form by suitable function. Modeled functional parameters allow determining the integral error parameters of ADC. Paper is a survey of error models starting from the structural models for the most common architectures and their linkage with the behavioral models represented by the simple look up table or the functional description of nonlinear errors for the output codes.



M. Amjad, Z. Salam, K. Ishaque:

A Model Parameter Extraction Method for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ozone Chamber using Differential Evolution

Abstract: In order to design an efficient resonant power supply for ozone gas generator, it is necessary to accurately determine the parameters of the ozone chamber. In the conventional method, the information from Lissajous plot is used to estimate the values of these parameters. However, the experimental setup for this purpose can only predict the parameters at one operating frequency and there is no guarantee that it results in the highest ozone gas yield. This paper proposes a new approach to determine the parameters using a search and optimization technique known as Differential Evolution (DE). The desired objective function of DE is set at the resonance condition and the chamber parameter values can be searched regardless of experimental constraints. The chamber parameters obtained from the DE technique are validated by experiment.



Zhi Ying. Ren, ChengHui. Gao, GuoQiang. Han, Shen Ding, JianXing. Lin:

DT-CWT Robust Filtering Algorithm for the Extraction of Reference and Waviness from 3-D Nano Scalar Surfaces

Abstract: Dual tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) exhibits superiority of shift invariance, directional selectivity, perfect reconstruction (PR), and limited redundancy and can effectively separate various surface components. However, in nano scale the morphology contains pits and convexities and is more complex to characterize. This paper presents an improved approach which can simultaneously separate reference and waviness and allows an image to remain robust against abnormal signals. We included a bilateral filtering (BF) stage in DT-CWT to solve imaging problems. In order to verify the feasibility of the new method and to test its performance we used a computer simulation based on three generations of Wavelet and Improved DT-CWT and we conducted two case studies. Our results show that the improved DT-CWT not only enhances the robustness filtering under the conditions of abnormal interference, but also possesses accuracy and reliability of the reference and waviness from the 3-D nano scalar surfaces.



Z. Faizal Khan,  A. Kannan:

Intelligent Segmentation of Medical Images using Fuzzy Bitplane Thresholding

Abstract: The performance of assessment in medical image segmentation is highly correlated with the extraction of anatomic structures from them, and the major task is how to separate the regions of interests from the background and soft tissues successfully. This paper proposes a fuzzy logic based bitplane method to automatically segment the background of images and to locate the region of interest of medical images. This segmentation algorithm consists of three steps, namely identification, rule firing, and inference. In the first step, we begin by identifying the bitplanes that represent the lungs clearly. For this purpose, the intensity value of a pixel is separated into bitplanes. In the second step, the triple signum function assigns an optimum threshold based on the grayscale values for the anatomical structure present in the medical images. Fuzzy rules are formed based on the available bitplanes to form the membership table and are stored in a knowledge base. Finally, rules are fired to assign final segmentation values through the inference process. The proposed new metrics are used to measure the accuracy of the segmentation method. From the analysis, it is observed that the proposed metrics are more suitable for the estimation of segmentation accuracy. The results obtained from this work show that the proposed method performs segmentation effectively for the different classes of medical images.



Yong Yang, Shuying Huang, Junfeng Gao, Zhongsheng Qian:

Multi-focus Image Fusion Using an Effective Discrete Wavelet Transform Based Algorithm

Abstract: In this paper, by considering the main objective of multi-focus image fusion and the physical meaning of wavelet coefficients, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based fusion technique with a novel coefficients selection algorithm is presented. After the source images are decomposed by DWT, two different window-based fusion rules are separately employed to combine the low frequency and high frequency coefficients. In the method, the coefficients in the low frequency domain with maximum sharpness focus measure are selected as coefficients of the fused image, and a maximum neighboring energy based fusion scheme is proposed to select high frequency sub-bands coefficients. In order to guarantee the homogeneity of the resultant fused image, a consistency verification procedure is applied to the combined coefficients. The performance assessment of the proposed method was conducted in both synthetic and real multi-focus images. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve better visual quality and objective evaluation indexes than several existing fusion methods, thus being an effective multi-focus image fusion method.


  Measurement in Biomedicine


L. Kowalczyk, H. Goszczynska, E. Zalewska, A. Bajera, L. Krolicki:

Invisible Base Electrode Coordinates Approximation for Simultaneous SPECT and EEG Data Visualization

Abstract: This work was performed as part of a larger research concerning the feasibility of improving the localization of epileptic foci, as compared to the standard SPECT examination, by applying the technique of EEG mapping. The presented study extends our previous work on the development of a method for superposition of SPECT images and EEG 3D maps when these two examinations are performed simultaneously. Due to the lack of anatomical data in SPECT images it is a much more difficult task than in the case of MRI/EEG study where electrodes are visible in morphological images. Using the appropriate dose of radioisotope we mark five base electrodes to make them visible in the SPECT image and then approximate the coordinates of the remaining electrodes using properties of the 10-20 electrode placement system and the proposed nine-ellipses model. This allows computing a sequence of 3D EEG maps spanning on all electrodes. It happens, however, that not all five base electrodes can be reliably identified in SPECT data. The aim of the current study was to develop a method for determining the coordinates of base electrode(s) missing in the SPECT image. The algorithm for coordinates approximation has been developed and was tested on data collected for three subjects with all visible electrodes. To increase the accuracy of the approximation we used head surface models. Freely available model from Oostenveld research based on data from SPM package and our own model based on data from our EEG/SPECT studies were used. For data collected in four cases with one electrode not visible we compared the invisible base electrode coordinates approximation for Oostenveld and our models. The results vary depending on the missing electrode placement, but application of the realistic head model significantly increases the accuracy of the approximation.



P. Hnilicová, M. Bittšanský, D. Dobrota:

Optimization of Brain T2 Mapping using Standard CPMG Sequence in a Clinical Scanner


In magnetic resonance imaging, transverse relaxation time (T2) mapping is a useful quantitative tool enabling enhanced diagnostics of many brain pathologies. The aim of our study was to test the influence of different sequence parameters on calculated T2 values, including multi-slice measurements, slice position, interslice gap, echo spacing, and pulse duration. Measurements were performed using standard multi-slice multi-echo CPMG imaging sequence on a 1.5 Tesla routine whole body MR scanner. We used multiple phantoms with different agarose concentrations (0 % to 4 %) and verified the results on a healthy volunteer. It appeared that neither the pulse duration, the size of interslice gap nor the slice shift had any impact on the T2. The measurement accuracy was increased with shorter echo spacing. Standard multi-slice multi-echo CPMG protocol with the shortest echo spacing, also the smallest available interslice gap (100 % of slice thickness) and shorter pulse duration was found to be optimal and reliable for calculating T2 maps in the human brain.

No. 3  

  Theoretical Problems of Measurement


Qian Wang, Xiao Yan, Kaiyu Qin:

Parameter Estimation Algorithm for the Exponential Signal by the Enhanced DFT Approach

Abstract: Based on enhanced interpolation DFT, a novel parameter estimation algorithm for the exponential signal is presented. The proposed two-step solution consists of a preprocessing unit which constructs a new signal sequence by continuously cycle shifting sample points and summing up N buffered exponential signal sample sequences, then an interpolation DFT engine to obtain accurate parameter estimation of the exponential signal based on the signal sequence generated by the preprocessing unit. Compared to previous works, owing to the combination of the pretreatment and the interpolation DFT analysis, the tedious iteration for spectral leakage elimination can be removed, and remarkable improvements are achieved in terms of estimation accuracy and speed. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.


  Measurement in Biomedicine


Siniša Sovilj, Ratko Magjarević, Amr Al Abed, Nigel H. Lovell, Socrates Dokos:

Simplified 2D Bidomain Model of Whole Heart Electrical Activity and ECG Generation

Abstract: The aim of this study was the development of a geometrically simple and highly computationally-efficient two dimensional (2D) biophysical model of whole heart electrical activity, incorporating spontaneous activation of the sinoatrial node (SAN), the specialized conduction system, and realistic surface ECG morphology computed on the torso. The FitzHugh–Nagumo (FHN) equations were incorporated into a bidomain finite element model of cardiac electrical activity, which was comprised of a simplified geometry of the whole heart with the blood cavities, the lungs and the torso as an extracellular volume conductor. To model the ECG, we placed four electrodes on the surface of the torso to simulate three Einthoven leads VI, VII and VIII from the standard 12-lead system. The 2D model was able to reconstruct ECG morphology on the torso from action potentials generated at various regions of the heart, including the sinoatrial node, atria, atrioventricular node, His bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers, and ventricles. Our 2D cardiac model offers a good compromise between computational load and model complexity, and can be used as a first step towards three dimensional (3D) ECG models with more complex, precise and accurate geometry of anatomical structures, to investigate the effect of various cardiac electrophysiological parameters on ECG morphology.


  Measurement of Physical Quantities


J. Valíček, M. Harničárová, M. Kušnerová, J. Zavadil, R. Grznárik:

Method of Maintaining the Required Values of Surface Roughness and Prediction of Technological Conditions for Cold Sheet Rolling

Abstract: The paper is based on results obtained from topography of surfaces of sheets rolled from deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697, non-alloy low-carbon structural steel EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium. The presented results document correctness of the assumption that the rolling force Froll increases with the increasing reduction Δh and the quality of the rolled surface is improved at the simultaneous increasing of strength of rolled sheets and the decreasing of size of structural grains. The experiment was performed on the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa, which enables only non-continuous technology in contrast to the rolling mill with continuous reduction on one sheet in several degrees on rolling trains, in consequence of which the obtained height parameters of the section are in close correlation with the predicted dependence. Contribution of the work consists in the creation of a mathematical model (algorithm) for predicting technological parameters of the two-high rolling stand DUO 210 SVa at change of the absolute reduction Δh, for example for a deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697 and non-alloy low-carbon structural steel PN EN 10263-2:2004 and aluminium, and also in the development of a method of calculation applicable to any material being rolled in general, because the authors have found that various materials can be differentiated by a derived analytical criterion IKP. This criterion is a function of ratio between the modulus of elasticity of reference material and that of actually rolled material. The reference material is here deep-drawing steel of the type KOHAL grade 697. Verification was carried out by measuring changes of final surface roughness profile and final strength of rolled sheets of the stated materials in relation to reductions and those were compared with theoretically predicted values. It is possible to identify and predict on the basis of this algorithm an instant state of surface topography in respect to variable technological conditions. On this basis it is then possible to calculate and plot individual main technological parameters.



Zhaohua Liu, Yang Mi, Yuliang Mao:

An Improved Real-time Denoising Method Based on Lifting Wavelet Transform

Abstract:  Signal denoising can not only enhance the signal to noise ratio (SNR) but also reduce the effect of noise. In order to satisfy the requirements of real-time signal denoising, an improved semisoft shrinkage real-time denoising method based on lifting wavelet transform was proposed. The moving data window technology realizes the real-time wavelet denoising, which employs wavelet transform based on lifting scheme to reduce computational complexity. Also hyperbolic threshold function and recursive threshold computing can ensure the dynamic characteristics of the system, in addition, it can improve the real-time calculating efficiency as well. The simulation results show that the semisoft shrinkage real-time denoising method has quite a good performance in comparison to the traditional methods, namely soft-thresholding and hard-thresholding. Therefore, this method can solve more practical engineering problems.



Roman Romashko, Timofey Efimov, Yuri Kulchin:

Resonance Micro-Weighing of Sub-Picogram Mass with the Use of Adaptive Interferometer

Abstract: Mass of macroscopic object is easily measured by a suitable balance. However, this approach becomes inapplicable if mass of microscopic object is to be determined. Alternative approach for mass measurement is based on using the micromechanical resonator as an inertial balance where oscillation frequency is shifted by small quantities of adsorbed mass. In this work we present experimental results of applying an adaptive interferometry technique based on dynamic hologram recorded in photorefractive CdTe crystal for measuring picogram mass adsorbed on micromechanical resonators with dimensions 215×40×15 µm3. It is also shown that the resonance micro-weighing system based on adaptive interferometer has potential for reducing the threshold of mass detection down to 10-17 g in the case of using a resonator with sub-micron dimensions.



N. Pompeo, K. Torokhtii, E. Silva:

Dielectric Resonators for the Measurements of the Surface Impedance of Superconducting Films

Abstract:  We present the development, realization and setup of dielectric resonators, for the purpose of measuring the surface impedance at microwave frequencies of superconducting thin films. We focus on resonators designed to operate in dc magnetic fields, optimized for the measurements of the variation of the surface impedance with the applied field. Two resonators, operating at 8 and 48 GHz, are presented. We discuss different approaches to the measurement of the resonator parameters, with particular attention to the nonidealities of real setups in a cryogenic environment. Finally, we present some sample measurement of high-Tc and low-Tc superconducting films.



D. Nespor, K. Bartusek, Z. Dokoupil:

Comparing Saddle, Slotted-tube and Parallel-plate Coils for Magnetic Resonance

Abstract: The paper is concerned with a comparison of the properties of RF coils of three configurations for MRI measurements on small animals. In comparison with the classical saddle coil the proposed modification of slotted-tube coil exhibits identical homogeneity of B1 field in a larger space. The parallel-plate coil has a satisfactory homogeneity of B1 field over the whole internal space. The signal-to-noise ratio measured for all three coils is roughly the same and is given by the magnitude of RF pre-amplifier noise. As the slotted-tube and parallel-plate coils have a lower inductance compared with the saddle coil, they can be tuned to resonance on the 200 MHz frequency even at larger dimensions. The results show that the parallel-plate coil has very good properties for the measurement of small animals.



I. Hamarová, P. Šmíd, P. Horváth, M. Hrabovský:

Methods for Determination of Mean Speckle Size in Simulated Speckle Pattern

Abstract: This paper deals with computation of mean speckle size in a speckle pattern generated through a numerical simulation of speckle after reflection of a Gaussian beam off a rough object’s surface. Within this simulation various speckle patterns are obtained by means of change in a parameter of the Gaussian beam. The mean speckle size is computed through two approaches using both the two-dimensional and the one-dimensional normalized autocorrelation function in intensity. Additionally, we propose a distinct optimization of the determination of the mean speckle size by reduction of intensity values representing detected speckle patterns. Results of the determination of the mean speckle size are compared with theoretical predictions.


No. 4  

    Measurement of Physical Quantities

183- 189 

D. Dichev, H. Koev, T. Bakalova, P. Louda:

A Model of the Dynamic Error as a Measurement Result of Instruments Defining the Parameters of Moving Objects

Abstract: The present paper considers a new model for the formation of the dynamic error inertial component. It is very effective in the analysis and synthesis of measuring instruments positioned on moving objects and measuring their movement parameters. The block diagram developed within this paper is used as a basis for defining the mathematical model. The block diagram is based on the set-theoretic description of the measuring system, its input and output quantities and the process of dynamic error formation. The model reflects the specific nature of the formation of the dynamic error inertial component. In addition, the model submits to the logical interrelation and sequence of the physical processes that form it. The effectiveness, usefulness and advantages of the model proposed are rooted in the wide range of possibilities it provides in relation to the analysis and synthesis of those measuring instruments, the formulation of algorithms and optimization criteria, as well as the development of new intelligent measuring systems with improved accuracy characteristics in dynamic mode.


190- 197

Mingchi Feng, Yonggang Gu, Yi Jin, Chao Zhai:

Multiple Iterations of Bundle Adjustment for the Position Measurement of Fiber Tips on LAMOST

Abstract: In the astronomical observation process of multi-object fiber spectroscopic telescope, the position measurement of fiber tips on the focal plane is difficult and critical, and is directly related to subsequent observation and ultimate data quality. The fibers should precisely align with the celestial target. Hence, the precise coordinates of the fiber tips are obligatory for tracking the celestial target. The accurate movement trajectories of the fiber tips on the focal surface of the telescope are the critical problem for the control of the fiber positioning mechanism. According to the special structure of the LAMOST telescope and the composition of the initial position error, this paper aims at developing a high precision and robust measurement method based on multiple iterations of bundle adjustment with a few control points. The measurement theory of the proposed methodology has been analyzed, and the measurement accuracy has been evaluated. The experimental results indicate that the new method is more accurate and more reliable than the polynomial fitting method. The maximum position error of the novel measurement algorithm of fiber tips with simulated and real data is 65.3 μm, and most of the position errors conform to the accuracy requirement (40 μm).


198- 203

Pavol Božek , Yuri Turygin:

Measurement of the Operating Parameters and Numerical Analysis of the Mechanical Subsystem

Abstract: Submission is focused on completing the information system about quality, operation, automatic testing and new evaluating method of vehicle subsystem. Numeric analysis is carried out on the base of automatic collection and systematic recording of commercial car operation. Proposed new information system about operation and trial process allows verification according to the proposed method. Critical components verified in laboratory conditions are detected by numeric analysis of reliability. Quality level increasing not only for final product, but also related automatic test laboratory for cars is the result of respecting these principles.

204- 212

K. Nadolny, W. Kapłonek:

Analysis of Flatness Deviations for Austenitic Stainless Steel Workpieces after Efficient Surface Machining

Abstract: The following work is an analysis of flatness deviations of a workpiece made of X2CrNiMo17-12-2 austenitic stainless steel. The workpiece surface was shaped using efficient machining techniques (milling, grinding, and smoothing). After the machining was completed, all surfaces underwent stylus measurements in order to obtain surface flatness and roughness parameters. For this purpose the stylus profilometer Hommel-Tester T8000 by Hommelwerke with HommelMap software was used. The research results are presented in the form of 2D surface maps, 3D surface topographies with extracted single profiles, Abbott-Firestone curves, and graphical studies of the Sk parameters. The results of these experimental tests proved the possibility of a correlation between flatness and roughness parameters, as well as enabled an analysis of changes in these parameters from shaping and rough grinding to finished machining. The main novelty of this paper is comprehensive analysis of measurement results obtained during a three-step machining process of austenitic stainless steel. Simultaneous analysis of individual machining steps (milling, grinding, and smoothing) enabled a complementary assessment of the process of shaping the workpiece surface macro- and micro-geometry, giving special consideration to minimize the flatness deviations.


213- 218

J. Hrabina, O. Acef, F. du Burck, N. Chiodo, Y. Candela, M. Sarbort, M. Hola, J. Lazar:

Comparison of Molecular Iodine Spectral Properties at 514.7 and 532 nm Wavelengths

Abstract: We present results of investigation and comparison of spectral properties of molecular iodine transitions in the spectral region of 514.7 nm that are suitable for laser frequency stabilization and metrology of length. Eight Doppler-broadened transitions that were not studied in detail before were investigated with the help of frequency doubled Yb‑doped fiber laser, and three of the most promising lines were studied in detail with prospect of using them in frequency stabilization of new laser standards. The spectral properties of hyperfine components (linewidths, signal-to-noise ratio) were compared with transitions that are well known and traditionally used for stabilization of frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser at the 532 nm region with the same molecular iodine absorption. The external frequency doubling arrangement with waveguide crystal and the Yb‑doped fiber laser is also briefly described together with the observed effect of laser aging.


219- 226

Dongzhi Zhang, Bokai Xia:

Soft Measurement of Water Content in Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow Based on RS-SVM Classifier and GA-NN Predictor

Abstract: Measurement of water content in oil-water mixing flow was restricted by special problems such as narrow measuring range and low accuracy. A simulated multi-sensor measurement system in the laboratory was established, and the influence of multi-factor such as temperature, and salinity content on the measurement was investigated by numerical simulation combined with experimental test. A soft measurement model based on rough set-support vector machine (RS-SVM) classifier and genetic algorithm-neural network (GA-NN) predictors was reported in this paper. Investigation results indicate that RS-SVM classifier effectively realized the pattern identification for water holdup states via fuzzy reasoning and self-learning, and GA-NN predictors are capable of subsection forecasting water content in the different water holdup patterns, as well as adjusting the model parameters adaptively in terms of online measuring range. Compared with the actual laboratory analyzed results, the soft model proposed can be effectively used for estimating the water content in oil-water mixture in all-round measuring range.


227- 236

M. Hamar, V. Michálek, A. Pathak:

Non-classical Signature of Parametric Fluorescence and its Application in Metrology

Abstract: The article provides a short theoretical background of what the non-classical light means. We applied the criterion for the existence of non-classical effects derived by C.T. Lee on parametric fluorescence. The criterion was originally derived for the study of two light beams with one mode per beam. We checked if the criterion is still working for two multimode beams of parametric down-conversion through numerical simulations. The theoretical results were tested by measurement of photon number statistics of twin beams emitted by nonlinear BBO crystal pumped by intense femtoseconds UV pulse. We used ICCD camera as the detector of photons in both beams. It appears that the criterion can be used for the measurement of the quantum efficiencies of the ICCD cameras.


  Measurement in Biomedicine


Michal Teplan, Anna Krakovská, Marián Špajdel:

Spectral EEG Features of a Short Psycho-physiological Relaxation

Abstract: Short-lasting psycho-physiological relaxation was investigated through an analysis of its bipolar electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics. In 8 subjects, 6-channel EEG data of 3-minute duration were recorded during 88 relaxation sessions. Time course of spectral EEG features was examined. Alpha powers were decreasing during resting conditions of 3-minute sessions in lying position with eyes closed. This was followed by a decrease of total power in centro-parietal cortex regions and an increase of beta power in fronto-central areas. Represented by EEG coherences the interhemispheric communication between the parieto-occipital regions was enhanced within a frequency range of 2-10 Hz. In order to discern between higher and lower levels of relaxation distinguished according to self-rated satisfaction, EEG features were assessed and discriminating parameters were identified. Successful relaxation was determined mainly by the presence of decreased delta-1 power across the cortex. Potential applications for these findings include the clinical, pharmacological, and stress management fields.


No. 5  

    Measurement of Physical Quantities


Eva Kurekova, Martin Halaj, Milada Omachelová, Ilja Martišovitš:

Theoretical Positioning Accuracy for Serial and Parallel Kinematic Structure

Abstract: Modern production machines employ complex kinematic structures that shall enhance their performance. As those machines are very sophisticated electro-mechanical structures, their design is time consuming and financially demanding. Therefore, designers search for new possibilities how to estimate future properties of the machine as early as in the design phase.

The paper gives a brief introduction to the adoption of methodology of measurement uncertainties into the design of production machines. The adapted methodology enables to estimate the theoretical positioning accuracy of the machine end effector that is one of the important indicators of machine performance. Both serial and parallel kinematic structures are considered in the paper. Methodology and sample calculations of theoretical positioning accuracy are presented for serial kinematic structure (represented by advanced plasma cutting head) and parallel kinematic structure, represented by one specific design named Tricept.



P. Kerdtongmee, C. Pumdaung, S. Danworaphong:

Quantifying Dry Rubber Content in Latex Solution Using an Ultrasonic Pulse

Abstract: The quality of latex solution harvested from a para rubber tree is determined by the amount of dry rubber content (DRC). In this work, we propose the use of an ultrasonic pulse for quantifying the DRC in latex solution. Fresh latex solutions are acquired locally from different regions in the south of Thailand. The DRC of the solutions is evaluated for calibration purposes by the standard technique as recommended in ISO126:2005. Along with the calibration experiment, the ultrasonic pulse experiment is performed on the same set of the solutions in cylindrical tubes of different lengths. The ultrasonic pulse transverse longitudinally through the tubes which are fully contained with the latex solutions. Ultrasonic speeds and spatial attenuations for different dry rubber contents can then be obtained. Our results reveal that the ultrasonic speed and spatial attenuation are linearly proportional to the amount of dry rubber content in latex solution. Using the empirical relationship between the spatial attenuation and the DRC, we can predict the DRC with the accuracy comparable to that of the microwave-drying technique. Given the size of the tube, our setup is relatively small and can be portable.



A. Glowacz:

Diagnostics of DC and Induction Motors Based on the Analysis of Acoustic Signals

Abstract: In this paper, a non-invasive method of early fault diagnostics of electric motors was proposed. This method uses acoustic signals generated by electric motors. Essential features were extracted from acoustic signals of motors. A plan of study of acoustic signals of electric motors was proposed. Researches were carried out for faultless induction motor, induction motor with one faulty rotor bar, induction motor with two faulty rotor bars and flawless Direct Current, and Direct Current motor with shorted rotor coils. Researches were carried out for methods of signal processing: log area ratio coefficients, Multiple signal classification, Nearest Neighbor classifier and the Bayes classifier. A pattern creation process was carried out using 40 samples of sound. In the identification process 130 five-second test samples were used. The proposed approach will also reduce the costs of maintenance and the number of faulty motors in the industry.



Dimitar Dichev, Hristofor Koev, Totka Bakalova, Petr Louda:

A Gyro-Free System for Measuring the Parameters of Moving Objects

Abstract: The present paper considers a new measurement concept of modeling measuring instruments for gyro-free determination of the parameters of moving objects. The proposed approach eliminates the disadvantages of the existing measuring instruments since it is based, on one hand, on a considerably simplified mechanical module, and on the other hand, on the advanced achievements in the area of nanotechnologies, microprocessor and computer equipment. A specific measuring system intended for measuring the trim, heel, roll, and pitch of a ship has been developed in compliance with the basic principles of this concept. The high dynamic accuracy of this measuring system is ensured by an additional measurement channel operating in parallel with the main channel. The operating principle of the additional measurement channel is based on an appropriate correction algorithm using signals from linear MEMS accelerometers. The presented results from the tests carried out by means of stand equipment in the form of a hexapod of six degrees of freedom prove the effectiveness of the proposed measurement concept.



  Measurement in Biomedicine


P. Sovilj, M. Milovanović, D. Pejić, M. Urekar, Z. Mitrović:

Influence of Wilbraham-Gibbs Phenomenon on Digital Stochastic Measurement of EEG Signal Over an Interval

Abstract: Measurement methods, based on the approach named Digital Stochastic Measurement, have been introduced, and several prototype and small-series commercial instruments have been developed based on these methods. These methods have been mostly investigated for various types of stationary signals, but also for non-stationary signals. This paper presents, analyzes and discusses digital stochastic measurement of electroencephalography (EEG) signal in the time domain, emphasizing the problem of influence of the Wilbraham-Gibbs phenomenon. The increase of measurement error, related to the Wilbraham-Gibbs phenomenon, is found. If the EEG signal is measured and measurement interval is 20 ms wide, the average maximal error relative to the range of input signal is 16.84 %. If the measurement interval is extended to 2s, the average maximal error relative to the range of input signal is significantly lowered – down to 1.37 %. Absolute errors are compared with the error limit recommended by Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale (OIML) and with the quantization steps of the advanced EEG instruments with 24-bit A/D conversion.



Vitalij Novickij, Audrius Grainys, Jurij Novickij, Sonata Tolvaisiene, Svetlana Markovskaja:

Compact Electro-Permeabilization System for Controlled Treatment of Biological Cells and Cell Medium Conductivity Change Measurement

Abstract: Subjection of biological cells to high intensity pulsed electric field results in the permeabilization of the cell membrane. Measurement of the electrical conductivity change allows an analysis of the dynamics of the process, determination of the permeabilization thresholds, and ion efflux influence. In this work a compact electro-permeabilization system for controlled treatment of biological cells is presented. The system is capable of delivering 5 μs – 5 ms repetitive square wave electric field pulses with amplitude up to 1 kV. Evaluation of the cell medium conductivity change is implemented in the setup, allowing indirect measurement of the ion concentration changes occurring due to the cell membrane permeabilization. The simulation model using SPICE and the experimental data of the proposed system are presented in this work. Experimental data with biological cells is also overviewed.



Slobodan Tabakovic, Milan Zeljkovic, Zoran Milojevic:

Automated Acquisition of Proximal Femur Morphological Characteristics

Abstract: The success of the hip arthroplasty surgery largely depends on the endoprosthesis adjustment to the patient's femur. This implies that the position of the femoral bone in relation to the pelvis is preserved and that the endoprosthesis position ensures its longevity. Dimensions and body shape of the hip joint endoprosthesis and its position after the surgery depend on a number of geometrical parameters of the patient's femur. One of the most suitable methods for determination of these parameters involves 3D reconstruction of femur, based on diagnostic images, and subsequent determination of the required geometric parameters.

In this paper, software for automated determination of geometric parameters of the femur is presented. Detailed software development procedure for the purpose of faster and more efficient design of the hip endoprosthesis that ensures patients’ specific requirements is also offered.



Srinivas Kuntamalla, Ram Gopal Reddy Lekkala:

Reduced Data Dualscale Entropy Analysis of HRV Signals for Improved Congestive Heart Failure Detection

Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) is an important dynamic variable of the cardiovascular system, which operates on multiple time scales. In this study, Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis is applied to HRV signals taken from Physiobank to discriminate Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) patients from healthy young and elderly subjects. The discrimination power of the MSE method is decreased as the amount of the data reduces and the lowest amount of the data at which there is a clear discrimination between CHF and normal subjects is found to be 4000 samples. Further, this method failed to discriminate CHF from healthy elderly subjects. In view of this, the Reduced Data Dualscale Entropy Analysis method is proposed to reduce the data size required (as low as 500 samples) for clearly discriminating the CHF patients from young and elderly subjects with only two scales. Further, an easy to interpret index is derived using this new approach for the diagnosis of CHF. This index shows 100 % accuracy and correlates well with the pathophysiology of heart failure.


No. 6  

    Measurement of Physical Quantities


Diego Bellan:

Noise Propagation in Multiple-Input ADC-Based Measurement Systems

Abstract: In this paper, the complete statistical characterization of the amplitude spectrum at the output of a multiple-input ADC-based measurement system is derived under the assumption of input channels with different noise levels. In practical applications the input channels correspond to the spatial components of a vector field (e.g., magnetic/electric field). Each output spectral line represents the amplitude of the vector field at a specific frequency. Such amplitude is a random variable depending on the noise levels (internal and external noise) of the input channels. Closed form analytical solution for the probability density function of the vector field amplitude is not available in the mathematical literature under the hypothesis of different noise levels. Therefore, an analytical expression for the probability density function is derived on the basis of a Laguerre series expansion. The impact of the kind of time window, the sampling frequency, and the number of samples is clearly derived and put into evidence. Approximate analytical expressions for the mean value and the variance of the vector field amplitude are also provided. Analytical results are validated by means of numerical simulations.



Mingxiang Ling, Huimin Li, Qisheng Li:

Measurement Uncertainty Evaluation Method Considering Correlation and its Application to Precision Centrifuge

Abstract: Measurement uncertainty evaluation based on the Monte Carlo method (MCM) with the assumption that all uncertainty sources are independent is common. For some measure problems, however, the correlation between input quantities is of great importance and even essential. The purpose of this paper is to provide an uncertainty evaluation method based on MCM that can handle correlated cases, especially for measurement in which uncertainty sources are correlated and submit to non-Gaussian distribution. In this method, a linear-nonlinear transformation technique was developed to generate correlated random variables sampling sequences with target prescribed marginal probability distribution and correlation coefficients. Measurement of the arm stretch of a precision centrifuge of 10-6 order was implemented by a high precision approach and associated uncertainty evaluation was carried out using the mentioned method and the method proposed in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). The obtained results were compared and discussed at last.



Pavel Koštial, Ivo Špička, Zora Jančíková, Jan Valíček, Marta Harničárová, Josef Hlinka:

On Experimental Thermal Analysis of Solid Materials

Abstract: The paper is devoted to the presentation of a method for measurement of thermal conductivity k, specific heat capacity cp, and thermal diffusivity applying the lumped capacitance model (LCM) as a special case of Newton’s model of cooling. At the specific experimental conditions resulting from the theoretical analysis of the used model, we present a method for experimental determination of all three above mentioned thermal parameters for materials with different thermal transport properties. The input experimental data provide a cooling curve of the tested material. The evaluation of experimental data is realized by software, the fundamental features of which are presented here. The statistical analysis of experimental data was performed.



Chen Sheng, Zhao Dongbiao, Lu Yonghua:

A New Compensation Method for Measurement of Thread Pitch Diameter by Profile Scanning

Abstract: For measurement of existing thread parameters using profile scanning, system error increases as pitch diameter, difference between the calibrating thread and measuring thread increases with the single gauge calibration method. There are several alignment deviations affecting the measurement of pitch diameter. To reduce the system error, a compensation method using two standard thread gauges to calculate the alignment deviations is proposed here. Finally, the theoretical and experimental comparisons between the single gauge calibration method and the proposed method are presented. The results demonstrate that the two gauges calibration method can effectively reduce the system error.



Krzysztof Gądek, Marek Dudzik, Anna Stręk:

A Novel Three-Head Ultrasonic System for Distance Measurements Based on the Correlation Method

Abstract: A novel double-emitter ultrasonic system for distance measurements based on the correlation method is presented. The proposed distance measurement method may be particularly useful in difficult conditions, e.g. for media parameters undergoing fast changes or in cases when obstacles and mechanical interference produce false reflections. The system is a development of a previously studied single-head idea. The present article covers the comparison of the two systems in terms of efficiency and precision. Experimental research described in this paper indicated that adding the second head improved the measurement exactness – standard deviation decreased by 40%. The correlation method is also described in detail, also giving the criterion for the quality of the measurement signal.



R. Hartansky, V. Smiesko, M. Bittera, L. Marsalka, O. Cicakova, L. Letanovska:

Sensor Interaction as a Source of the Electromagnetic Field Measurement Error

Abstract: The article deals with analytical calculation and numerical simulation of interactive influence of electromagnetic sensors. Sensors are components of field probe, whereby their interactive influence causes the measuring error. Electromagnetic field probe contains three mutually perpendicular spaced sensors in order to measure the vector of electrical field. Error of sensors is enumerated with dependence on interactive position of sensors. Based on that, proposed were recommendations for electromagnetic field probe construction to minimize the sensor interaction and measuring error.



Robert Brajkovič, Tomaž Žagar and Dejan Križaj:

Frequency Synchronization Analysis in Digital lock-in Methods for Bio-impedance Determination

Abstract: The lock-in method is one of the most frequently used methods for reconstruction of measured signals and as such frequently applied in the (bio)impedance method to determine the modulus and phase of the (bio)impedance. In implementation of the method in a (bio)impedance measurement device one has to consider possible non synchronized frequencies of the reference and the analyzed signals as well as potential sources of noise. In this work we analyzed these errors theoretically and experimentally. We show that both amplitude and phase errors depend on the relative difference of the frequencies of the reference and investigated signal as well as the number of integration periods. Theoretically, these errors vanish during the determination of the (bio)impedance modulus and phase. In practical implementation the inaccuracies appear at points of very low determined signal amplitudes due to the limited accuracy of analog to digital converters and are distributed around these points due to other sources of noise inherent in implementation of the measurement device.



Yaqing Tu, Ting’ao Shen, Haitao Zhang, Ming Li:

Two New Sliding DTFT Algorithms for Phase Difference Measurement Based on a New Kind of Windows

Abstract: For the ultra-low frequency signals or adjacent Nyquist frequency signals, which exist in the vibration engineering domain, the traditional DTFT-based algorithm shows serious bias for phase difference measurement. It is indicated that the spectrum leakage and negative frequency contribution are the essential causes of the bias. In order to improve the phase difference measurement accuracy of the DTFT-based algorithm, two new sliding DTFT algorithms for phase difference measurement based on a new kind of windows are proposed, respectively. Firstly, the new kind of windows developed by convolving conventional rectangular windows is introduced, which obtains a stronger inhibition of spectrum leakage. Then, with negative frequency contribution considered, two new formulas for phase difference calculation under the new kind of windows are derived in detail. Finally, the idea of sliding recursive is proposed to decrease the computational load. The proposed algorithms are easy to be realized and have a higher accuracy than the traditional DTFT-based algorithm. Simulations and engineering applications verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.



  Measurement in Biomedicine


Pavel Dvořák, Karel Bartušek, Zdeněk Smékal:

Unsupervised Pathological Area Extraction Using 3D T2 and FLAIR MR Images


This work discusses fully automated extraction of brain tumor and edema in 3D MR volumes. The goal of this work is the extraction of the whole pathological area using such an algorithm that does not require a human intervention. For the good visibility of these kinds of tissues both T2-weighted and FLAIR images were used. The proposed method was tested on 80 MR volumes of publicly available BRATS database, which contains high and low grade gliomas, both real and simulated. The performance was evaluated by the Dice coefficient, where the results were differentiated between high and low grade and real and simulated gliomas. The method reached promising results for all of the combinations of images: real high grade (0.73 + 0.20), real low grade (0.81 + 0.06), simulated high grade (0.81 + 0.14), and simulated low grade (0.81 + 0.04). 




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