MEASUREMENT SCIENCE REVIEW            Volume 15       

Main Page


No. 1

No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 No. 6  

  Measurement of Physical Quantities



István Gábor Gyurika, Tibor Szalay:

Examination of the Average Chipping Rate on the Edges of Milled Granite Surfaces

Abstract: The research described in this article was carried out for the purpose of developing a quantitative marker for defining the average edge chipping rate of milled granite surfaces and for testing and proving whether this quantitative marker can effectively be applied. Another aim of the research was to test the applicability of the developed measurement method and the precision of the body representing the volume loss caused by chipping. The surface edges of the milled specimens were digitised using a laser scanner and chipped volumes were defined on the basis of a body generated with the help of a point cloud, and then the errors of the volumes produced by the evaluation-purpose software were examined using a digital microscope. The investigations proved that the proposed measurement method is accurate and that the replacement body defined through measurements appropriately approximates the volume of chippings in the case of milled granite surfaces.



E. Sysoev, R. Kulikov, I. Vykhristyuk, Yu. Chugui:

Correction of Scanning Steps to Improve Accuracy in Interferometric Profilometer

Abstract:  In scanning interferometry of longitudinal shift, an uncertainty of required phase shift performance leads to a measurement error. Such uncertainty can be caused by external factors (vibrations, air turbulence in measuring area etc.) as well as inaccuracy of the scanning system. The method for calculating the phase shift between interferograms, which allows reducing the measurement error, is proposed. The results of numerical and full scale experiments are presented.



Jong-Seok Oh, Seung-Bok Choi and Yang-Sub Lee:

Torque Measurement of 3-DOF Haptic Master Operated by Controllable Electrorheological Fluid

Abstract:  This work presents a torque measurement method of 3-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) haptic master featuring controllable electrorheological (ER) fluid.  In order to reflect the sense of an organ for a surgeon, the ER haptic master which can generate the repulsive torque of an organ is utilized as a remote controller for a surgery robot. Since accurate representation of organ feeling is essential for the success of the robot-assisted surgery, it is indispensable to develop a proper torque measurement method of 3-DOF ER haptic master. After describing the structural configuration of the haptic master, the torque models of ER spherical joint are mathematically derived based on the Bingham model of ER fluid. A new type of haptic device which has pitching, rolling, and yawing motions is then designed and manufactured using a spherical joint mechanism. Subsequently, the field-dependent parameters of the Bingham model are identified and generating repulsive torque according to applied electric field is measured. In addition, in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed torque model, a comparative work between simulated and measured torques is undertaken.



Dimitar Dichev, Hristofor Koev, Totka Bakalova, Petr Louda:

A Kalman Filter-Based Algorithm for Measuring

Abstract:  One of the most complex problems in measuring equipment is related to the provision of the required dynamic accuracy of measuring systems determining the parameters of moving objects. The present paper views an algorithm for improving the dynamic accuracy of such measuring systems. It is based on the Kalman method. The algorithm aims to eliminate the influence of a number of interference sources, each of which is of secondary significance. However, their total effect can cause considerable distortion of the measurement signal. The algorithm model is designed for gyro-free measuring systems. It is based on one of the most widely used elements in the dynamic systems, namely the physical pendulum, due to which measuring systems of high dynamic accuracy and low cost can be developed. The presented experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm with respect to the dynamic accuracy of measuring systems of this type.



Nebojša Hristov, Aleksandar Kari, Damir Jerković, Slobodan Savić, Radoslav Sirovatka:

Simulation and Measurements of Small Arms Blast Wave Overpressure in the Process of Designing a Silencer 

Abstract:  Simulation and measurements of muzzle blast overpressure and its physical manifestations are studied in this paper.  The use of a silencer can have a great influence on the overpressure intensity. A silencer is regarded as an acoustic transducer and a waveguide. Wave equations for an acoustic dotted source of directed effect are used for physical interpretation of overpressure as an acoustic phenomenon. Decomposition approach has proven to be suitable to describe the formation of the output wave of the wave transducer. Electroacoustic analogies are used for simulations. A measurement chain was used to compare the simulation results with the experimental ones.



Yingjun Zhang, Wen Liu, Xuefeng Yang, Shengwei Xing:

Hidden Markov Model-based Pedestrian Navigation System using MEMS Inertial Sensors

Abstract:  In this paper a foot-mounted pedestrian navigation system using MEMS inertial sensors is implemented, where the zero-velocity detection is abstracted into a hidden Markov model with 4 states and 15 observations. Moreover, an observations extraction algorithm has been developed to extract observations from sensor outputs; sample sets are used to train and optimize the model parameters by the Baum-Welch algorithm. Finally, a navigation system is developed, and the performance of the pedestrian navigation system is evaluated using indoor and outdoor field tests, and the results show that position error is less than 3% of total distance travelled.



Chunfeng Lv, Wei Tao, Huaming Lei, Yingying Jiang, Hui Zhao:

Analytical Modeling for the Grating Eddy Current Displacement Sensors

Abstract:  As a new type of displacement sensor, grating eddy current displacement sensor (GECDS) combines traditional eddy current sensors and grating structure in one. The GECDS performs a wide range displacement measurement without precision reduction. This paper proposes an analytical modeling approach for the GECDS. The solution model is established in the Cartesian coordinate system, and the solving domain is limited to finite extents by using the truncated region eigenfunction expansion method. Based on the second order vector potential, expressions for the electromagnetic field as well as coil impedance related to the displacement can be expressed in closed-form. Theoretical results are then confirmed by experiments, which prove the suitability and effectiveness of the analytical modeling approach.



Petr Zavyalov:

3D Hole Inspection Using Lens with High Field Curvature

Abstract:  One of the actual 3D measurement problems is the optical inspection of various holes. In this respect, the task of plane image formation of holes as extended 3D objects using optical methods turns out to be of primary importance. We have developed specialized lenses that perform such transformations due to specially increased aberrations (field curvature, astigmatism) for the formation of extended objects plane images. The calculations of the lens parameters are presented. The detail analysis of the imaging properties was carried out. The presented hole inspection lens has been designed, constructed and used for inspection of the fuel assembly spacer grids.




No. 2  

  Measurement of Physical Quantities


Miroslav Botta, Milan Simek, Ondrej Krajsa, Vladimir Cervenka, Tamas Pal:

On Location Estimation Technique Based of the Time of Flight in Low-power Wireless Systems

Abstract: This study deals with the distance estimation issue in low-power wireless systems being usually used for sensor networking and interconnecting the Internet of Things. There is an effort to locate or track these sensor entities for different needs the radio signal time of flight principle from the theoretical and practical side of application research is evaluated. Since these sensor devices are mainly targeted for low power consumption appliances, there is always need for optimization of any aspects needed for regular sensor operation. For the distance estimation we benefit from IEEE 802.15.4a technology, which offers the precise ranging capabilities. There is no need for additional hardware to be used for the ranging task and all fundamental measurements are acquired within the 15.4a standard compliant hardware in the real environment. The proposed work examines the problems and the solutions for implementation of distance estimation algorithms for WSN devices. The main contribution of the article is seen in this real testbed evaluation of the ranging technology.



P. Mlynek, J. Misurec, M. Koutny, R. Fujdiak, T. Jedlicka:

Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of Power Line Transmission Parameters for Power Line Communication

Abstract: The article describes a way of evaluating the power line channel frequency response and input impedance by means of the linear time-invariant (LTI) power line generator. Two possible methods are introduced for the calculation of primary parameters: the first method depends on the physical realization and physical dimension of the cable, and the second method is derived from the data provided by typical electrical cable manufacturers. Based on these methods, a comparison of transfer functions was made. This is followed by measurement evaluation and numerical verification on a simple topology.



S. Iakovidis, C. Apostolidis, T. Samaras:

Application of the Monte Carlo Method for the Estimation  of Uncertainty in Radiofrequency Field Spot Measurements

Abstract: The objective of the present work is the application of the Monte Carlo method (GUMS1) for evaluating uncertainty in electromagnetic field measurements and the comparison of the results with the ones obtained using the 'standard' method (GUM). In particular, the two methods are applied in order to evaluate the field measurement uncertainty using a frequency selective radiation meter and the Total Exposure Quotient (TEQ) uncertainty. Comparative results are presented in order to highlight cases where GUMS1 results deviate significantly from the ones obtained using GUM, such as the presence of a non-linear mathematical model connecting the inputs with the output quantity (case of the TEQ model) or the presence of a dominant non-normal distribution of an input quantity (case of U-shaped mismatch uncertainty). The deviation of the results obtained from the two methods can even lead to different decisions regarding the conformance with the exposure reference levels.



Tao Ma, Shaotao Dai, Jingye Zhang,  Lianqi Zhao:

Rogowski Coil for Current Measurement in a Cryogenic Environment

Abstract: A Rogowski coil based sensor for current measurement in a cryogenic environment and results of its application for paralleled high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil current sharing are presented. The current sensor consists of a Rogowski coil and an integrator, where the coil output voltage is proportional to the derivative of primary current and the integrator transfers the differentiation to normal state. The Rogowski coil has promising applicability at cryogenic circumstance because its body is made of low temperature materials. The integrator ensures a large bandwidth with feasible magnitude, which is vital for dynamic current measurement during the quench of the HTS coil. The proposed current sensor is used for current sharing measurement of two paralleled Bi2223 HTS coils, and the experimental results show that the measurement precision is better than 0.5%.



Václav Kočí, Jan Kočí, Tomáš Korecký, Jiří Maděra, Robert Černý:

Determination of Radiative Heat Transfer Coefficient at High Temperatures Using a Combined Experimental-Computational Technique

Abstract:  The radiative heat transfer coefficient at high temperatures is determined using a combination of experimental measurement and computational modeling. In the experimental part, cement mortar specimen is heated in a laboratory furnace to 600°C and the temperature field inside is recorded using built-in K-type thermocouples connected to a data logger. The measured temperatures are then used as input parameters in the three dimensional computational modeling whose objective is to find the best correlation between the measured and calculated data via four free parameters, namely the thermal conductivity of the specimen, effective thermal conductivity of thermal insulation, and heat transfer coefficients at normal and high temperatures. The optimization procedure which is performed using the genetic algorithms provides the value of the high-temperature radiative heat transfer coefficient of 3.64 W/(m2K).



Steven Moser, Peter Lee, and Adrian Podoleanu:

An FPGA Architecture for Extracting Real-Time Zernike Coefficients from Measured Phase Gradients

Abstract: Zernike modes are commonly used in adaptive optics systems to represent optical wavefronts. However, real-time calculation of Zernike modes is time consuming due to two factors: the large factorial components in the radial polynomials used to define them and the large inverse matrix calculation needed for the linear fit. This paper presents an efficient parallel method for calculating Zernike coefficients from phase gradients produced by a Shack-Hartman sensor and its real-time implementation using an FPGA by pre-calculation and storage of subsections of the large inverse matrix. The architecture exploits symmetries within the Zernike modes to achieve a significant reduction in memory requirements and a speed-up of 2.9 when compared to published results utilising a 2D-FFT method for a grid size of 8x8. Analysis of processor element internal word length requirements show that 24-bit precision in precalculated values of the Zernike mode partial derivatives ensures less than 0.5% error per Zernike coefficient and an overall error of <1%. The design has been synthesized on a Xilinx Spartan-6 XC6SLX45 FPGA. The resource utilisation on this device is <3% of slice registers, <15% of slice LUTs, and approximately 48% of available DSP blocks independent of the Shack-Hartmann grid size. Block RAM usage is <16% for Shack-Hartmann grid sizes up to 32x32.




No. 3  

  Theoretical Problems of Measurement


Yuanlu Li, Chang Pan, Xiao Meng, Yaqing Ding, Haixiu Chen:

Haar Wavelet Based Implementation Method of the Non–integer Order Differentiation and its Application to Signal Enhancement

Abstract: Non–integer order differentiation is changing application of traditional differentiation because it can achieve a continuous interpolation of the integer order differentiation. However, implementation of the non–integer order differentiation is much more complex than that of integer order differentiation. For this purpose, a Haar wavelet-based implementation method of non–integer order differentiation is proposed. The basic idea of the proposed method is to use the operational matrix to compute the non–integer order differentiation of a signal through expanding the signal by the Haar wavelets and constructing Haar wavelet operational matrix of the non–integer order differentiation. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified by comparison of theoretical results and those obtained by another non–integer order differential filtering method. Finally, non–integer order differentiation was applied to enhance signal.



  Measurement of Physical Quantities


Georgii Felinskyi, Mykhailo Dyriv:

Noise Suppression Phenomenon in Fiber Raman Amplifier

Abstract: The problem of small bit error rate is actual in fiber Raman amplifiers. Our experimental data on the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) with backward pumping as a base of optical noise evaluation are presented in this paper. Raman gain spectrum for useful Stokes low-powered signal is calculated and compared with obtained spectrum of noncoherent ASE noise. It is shown that output optical signal has better gain than the amplified spontaneous emission that leads to appreciable growth of output optical signal-to-noise ratio.



Igor Vrba, Rudolf Palencar, Miodrag Hadzistevi, Branko Strbac, Vesna Spasic-Jokic, Janko Hodolic:

Different Approaches in Uncertainty Evaluation for Measurement of Complex Surfaces Using Coordinate Measuring Machine

Abstract: This paper describes a methodology for uncertainty assessment for Coordinate Measuring Machine measurement of complex real work pieces from industry. The study applied two approaches (in scanning mode only) for estimating the measurement uncertainty with the support of Taguchi plan in the experiment containing five factors: scanning speed, sample density, probe configuration, scanning direction, and position of measuring object. In the first approach the uncertainty was estimated by measuring the basic geometric objects (primitives like sphere and torus) representing the decomposition of complex surfaces and in the second one a complex surface was treated as an unknown quantity. Calculated uncertainty Type A for both measurement tasks was in the range from 0.65 μm to 6.47 μm. Evaluation of the uncertainty Type B covered specifications of the machine and standard uncertainties derived from temperature effects. Total uB component was found to be in order of 0.4 μm. Future research will be directed towards the development and application of simulation methods.



Adam Glowacz, Andrzej Glowacz, Zygfryd Glowacz:

Recognition of Thermal Images of Direct Current Motor with Application of Area Perimeter Vector and Bayes Classifier

Abstract: Infrared thermography can measure the temperature of a surface remotely. In this article authors present a diagnostic method of incipient fault detection. The proposed approach is based on pattern recognition. It uses monochrome thermal images of the rotor with the application of an area perimeter vector and a Bayes classifier. The investigations have been carried out for direct current motor without faults and motor with shorted rotor coils. The measurements were performed in the laboratory. The efficiency of recognition using the area perimeter vector and the Bayes classifier was 100 %. The investigations show that the method based on recognition of thermal images can be profitable for engineers. The proposed method can be applied in mining, metallurgy, fuel industry and in factories where electrical motors are used.



Jerzy Roj, Adam Cichy:

Method of Measurement of Capacitance and Dielectric Loss Factor Using Artificial Neural Networks

Abstract: A novel method of dielectric loss factor measuring has been described. It is based on a quasi-balanced method for the capacitance measurement. These AC circuits allow to measure only one component of the impedance. However, after analyzing a quasi-balanced circuit's processing equation, it is possible to derive a novel method of dielectric loss factor measuring. Dielectric loss factor can be calculated after detuning the circuit from its quasi-equilibrium state. There are two possible ways of measuring the dielectric loss factor. In the first, the quasi-balancing of the circuit is necessary. However, it is possible to measure capacitance of an object under test. In the second method, the capacitance cannot be measured. Use of an artificial neural network minimizes errors of the loss factor determining. Simulations showed that the appropriate choice of the range of the detuning can minimize errors as well.



Krzysztof Murawski:

New Vision Sensor to Measure Gas Pressure

Abstract: The paper presents the construction and operation of a video sensor developed for video-manometer. In the publication the use of video-manometer for measuring gas pressure is presented. A characteristic feature of the device is pressure measurement based on diaphragm deformation and digital image processing. Presented measuring technique eliminates restrictions in the construction of the measuring apparatus arising from non-linear nature of diaphragm deformation. It also allows performing measurements of gas pressure, also of explosive gas, providing galvanic isolation between the factor measured and the measuring device. The paper presents the results of video-manometer calibration and measurements taken during the laboratory tests. It has been shown that the developed video-manometer, that is equipped with a flat silicone diaphragm, allows measuring the gas pressure in the range of 0 – 100 mbar with an error less than 2 %. In the experiments the CO2 pressure was measured.



R. Sotner, J. Jerabek, N. Herencsar, K. Vrba, A. Lahiri, T. Dostal:

Study of Small-signal Model of Simple CMOS Amplifier with Instability Compensation of Positive Feedback Loop

Abstract: The paper deals with precise analysis of simple AC variable gain CMOS amplifier. The circuit can be used as a simple voltage follower (6 MOS transistors are required) or amplifier. The main attention of this work is focused on a small-signal model of the proposed block and effects of additional passive network leading to compensation of its instability. The continuous gain adjusting in range from 1.1 to 10 (0.8 – 20 dB and with bandwidth 4.9 - 90 MHz at 5 pF load capacitance) is possible and the proposed amplifier is suitable for implementation in systems, where lower range of gain adjusting and large dynamical range is required. Theoretical analyses are supported by PSpice simulations (TSMC 0.18 um technological models) and experimental measurements with commercially available CMOS transistor fields (ALD1106/7) also confirm the discussed behavior of the amplifier.



  Measurement in Biomedicine


Sridhar P. Arjunan, Dinesh Kumar, Ganesh Naik:

Independence Between Two Channels of Surface Electromyogram Signal to Measure the Loss of Motor Units

Abstract: This study has investigated the relationship in the connectivity of motor units in surface electromyogram (sEMG) of biceps brachii muscle. It is hypothesized that with ageing, there is reduction/loss in number of motor units, leading to reduction in the independence between the channels of the recorded muscle activity. Two channels of sEMG were recorded during three levels of isometric muscle contraction: 50 %, 75 % and 100 % maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). 73 subjects (age range 20-70) participated in the experiments. The independence in channel index (ICI) between the two sEMG recording locations was computed using the independent components and Frobenius norm. ANOVA Statistical analysis was performed to test the effect of age (loss of motor units) and level of contraction on ICI. The results show that the ICI among the older cohort was significantly lower compared with the younger adults. This research study has shown that the reduction in number of motor units is reflected by the reduction in the ICI of the sEMG signal.




No. 4  

  Measurement of Physical Quantities


Jozef Černecký, Karina Valentová, Elena Pivarčiová, Pavol Božek:

Ionization Impact on the Air Cleaning Efficiency in the Interior

Abstract: The paper deals with ionization impact on efficient cleaning of air in a measuring chamber which has been cleaned and closed against any outer impacts (e.g. impurities, dust from another room, human odours). Smoking has an impact on the number of positive and negative ions including the concentration of particulate matter PM10. We investigated the ion concentration according to the presence of cigarette smoke in the room and according to the change of lit cigarette distance from the supply of ionized air. Due to the experiment there was simulated smoking at the relative air humidity φ = 37 % and φ = 39 % and temperature of 20 °C in the room. Increased PM10 concentrations were caused only by cigarette smoke pollution or more precisely by artificially created higher humidity in the measuring room excluding ambient environment impacts. The aim of the experiments was to prove influence of ionization on the elimination of cigarette smoke. The measurements showed that the highest efficiency of PM10 particulate removal was achieved when the distance of smoking cigarettes from ionization source was 3 m and the air humidity was 39 %. The consequent increase of the distance of smoking cigarettes from the ionization source significantly decreased the efficiency of particle removal. The difference between ionized and natural air is minimal at the bigger distance.



Adam Glowacz:

Recognition of Acoustic Signals of Synchronous Motors with the Use of MoFS and Selected Classifiers

Abstract: This paper proposes an approach based on acoustic signals for detecting faults appearing in synchronous motors. Acoustic signals of a machine were used for fault detection. These faults contained: broken coils and shorted stator coils. Acoustic signals were used to assess the usefulness of early fault diagnostic of synchronous motors. The acoustic signal recognition system was based on methods of data processing: normalization of the amplitude, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), method of frequency selection (MoFS), backpropagation neural network, classifier based on words coding, and Nearest Neighbor classifier. A plan of study of acoustic signals of synchronous motors was proposed. Software of acoustic signal recognition of synchronous motors was implemented. Four states of a synchronous motor were used in analysis. A pattern creation process was carried out for 28 training samples of noise. An identification process was carried out for 60 test samples. This system can be used to diagnose synchronous motors and other electrical machines.



Predrag B. Petrović:

 A New High Precision Power Detector of Complex Voltage Signals

Abstract: A current-mode bipolar power detector based on a novel synthesis of translinear loop squarer/divider is presented. The circuits consist of a single multiple-output current controlled current differencing transconductance amplifier (MO-CCCDTA), two current controlled conveyors (CCCII), and one resistor and one capacitor that are both grounded. The errors related to the signal processing and errors bound were investigated and presented in the paper. The PSpice simulation and experimental results are depicted, and agree well with the theoretical anticipation. The measurement results show that the scheme improves the accuracy of the detector to better than 0.04 % and wide operating frequency range from 50 Hz to 10 MHz. The maximum power consumption of the detector is approximately 5.80 mW, at ±1.2 V supply voltages.



Darko Brodić, Alessia Amelio:

Classification of the Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Radiation Measurement from the Laptop Computers

Abstract: The paper considers the level of the extremely low-frequency magnetic field, which is produced by laptop computers. The magnetic field, which is characterized by extremely low frequencies up to 300 Hz is measured due to its hazardous effects to the laptop user's health. The experiment consists of testing 13 different laptop computers in normal operation conditions. The measuring of the magnetic field is performed in the adjacent neighborhood of the laptop computers. The measured data are presented and then classified. The classification is performed by the K-Medians method in order to determine the critical positions of the laptop. At the end, the measured magnetic field values are compared with the critical values suggested by different safety standards. It is shown that some of the laptop computers emit a very strong magnetic field. Hence, they must be used with extreme caution.



  Measurement in Biomedicine


R. Martin, F. Vazquez, S.E. Solis-Najera, O. Marrufo, R. Godinez, A. O. Rodriguez:

Functional Magnetic Resonance Study of Non-conventional Morphological Brains: malnourished rats

Abstract:  Malnutrition during brain development can cause serious problems that can be irreversible. Dysfunctional patterns of brain activity can be detected with functional MRI. We used BOLD functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate region differences of brain activity between control and malnourished rats. The food-competition method was applied to a rat model to induce malnutrition during lactation. A 7T magnet was used to detect changes of the BOLD signal associated with changes in brain activity caused by the trigeminal nerve stimulation in malnourished and control rats. Major neuronal activation was observed in malnourished rats in several brain regions, including cerebellum, somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. Statistical analysis of the BOLD signals from various brain areas revealed significant differences in somatosensory cortex between the control and experimental groups, as well as a significant difference between the cerebellum and other structures in the experimental group.  This study, particularly in malnourished rats, demonstrates increased BOLD activation in the cerebellum.



Yalcin Isler, Ali Narin, Mahmut Ozer:

Comparison of the Effects of Cross-validation Methods on Determining Performances of Classifiers Used in Diagnosing Congestive Heart Failure

Abstract:  Congestive heart failure (CHF) occurs when the heart is unable to provide sufficient pump action to maintain blood flow to meet the needs of the body. Early diagnosis is important since the mortality rate of the patients with CHF is very high. There are different validation methods to measure performances of classifier algorithms designed for this purpose. In this study, k-fold and leave-one-out cross-validation methods were tested for performance measures of five distinct classifiers in the diagnosis of the patients with CHF. Each algorithm was run 100 times and the average and the standard deviation of classifier performances were recorded. As a result, it was observed that average performance was enhanced and the variability of performances was decreased when the number of data sections used in the cross-validation method was increased.



Jan Mikulka:

GPU-Accelerated Reconstruction of T2 Maps in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Abstract: The main tissue parameters targeted by MR tomography include, among others, relaxation times T1 and T2. This paper focuses on the computation of the relaxation time T2 measured with the Spin Echo method, where the sensing coil of the tomograph provides a multi-echo signal. The maxima of these echoes must be interleaved with an exponential function, and the T2 relaxation can be determined directly from the exponential waveform. As this procedure needs to be repeated for each pixel of the scanned tissue, the processing of large images then becomes very intensive. For example, given the common resolution of 256x256 with 20 slices and five echoes at different times TE, it is necessary to reconstruct 1.3∙106 exponential functions. At present, such computation performed on a regular PC may last even several minutes. This paper introduces the results provided by accelerated computation based on parallelization and carried out with a graphics card. By using the simple method of linear regression, we obtain a processing time of less than 36 ms. Another effective option consists in the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, which enables us to reconstruct the same image in 96 ms. This period is at least 900 times shorter than that achievable with professional software. In this context, the paper also comprises an analysis of the results provided by the above-discussed techniques.



V. Salai Selvam, S. Shenbaga Devi:

Analysis of Spectral Features of EEG signal in Brain Tumor Condition

Abstract: The scalp electroencephalography (EEG) signal is an important clinical tool for the diagnosis of several brain disorders. The objective of the presented work is to analyze the feasibility of the spectral features extracted from the scalp EEG signals in detecting brain tumors. A set of 16 candidate features from frequency domain is considered. The significance on the mean values of these features between 100 brain tumor patients and 102 normal subjects is statistically evaluated. Nine of the candidate features significantly discriminate the brain tumor case from the normal one. The results encourage the use of (quantitative) scalp EEG for the diagnosis of brain tumors.




No. 5  

  Measurement of Physical Quantities


Halina Nieciąg:

Improvement of Simulation Method in Validation of Software of the Coordinate Measuring Systems

Abstract: Software is used in order to accomplish various tasks at each stage of the functioning of modern measuring systems. Before metrological confirmation of measuring equipment, the system has to be validated. This paper discusses the method for conducting validation studies of a fragment of software to calculate the values of measurands. Due to the number and nature of the variables affecting the coordinate measurement results and the complex character and multi-dimensionality of measurands, the study used the Monte Carlo method of numerical simulation. The article presents an attempt of possible improvement of results obtained by classic Monte Carlo tools. The algorithm LHS (Latin Hypercube Sampling) was implemented as alternative to the simple sampling schema of classic algorithm.



Jun Luo, Zhiqian Wang, Chengwu Shen, Zhuoman Wen, Shaojin Liu, Chang Liu, Sheng Cai, Jianrong Li:

Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

Abstract: This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.



Audrius Grainys, Jurij Novickij, Tomaš Stankevič, Voitech Stankevič, Vitalij Novickij, Nerija Žurauskienė:

Single Pulse Calibration of Magnetic Field Sensors Using Mobile 43 kJ Facility

Abstract: In this work we present a mobile 43 kJ pulsed magnetic field facility for single pulse calibration of magnetic field sensors. The magnetic field generator is capable of generating magnetic fields up to 40 T with pulse durations in the range of 0.3–2 ms. The high power crowbar circuit is used for the reverse voltage protection and pulse shaping purposes. The structure, the development challenges and the implemented solutions to improve the facility for the calibration of the magnetic field sensors are overviewed. The experimental data of the application of the proposed generator for the calibration of manganite magnetic field sensors are presented.



Q. Liang, W. Wu, D. Zhang, B. Wei, W. Sun, Y. Wang, Y. Ge:

Design and Analysis of a Micromechanical Three-Component Force Sensor for Characterizing and Quantifying Surface Roughness

Abstract: Roughness, which can represent the trade-off between manufacturing cost and performance of mechanical components, is a critical predictor of cracks, corrosion and fatigue damage.  In order to measure polished or super-finished surfaces, a novel touch probe based on three-component force sensor for characterizing and quantifying surface roughness is proposed by using silicon micromachining technology. The sensor design is based on a cross-beam structure, which ensures that the system possesses high sensitivity and low coupling. The results show that the proposed sensor possesses high sensitivity, low coupling error, and temperature compensation function. The proposed system can be used to investigate micromechanical structures with nanometer accuracy.



Waclaw Gawedzki, Jerzy Tarnowski:

Design and Testing of the Strain Transducer for Measuring Deformations of Pipelines Operating in the Mining-deformable Ground Environment

Abstract: Design and laboratory test results of the strain transducer intended for monitoring and assessing stress states of pipelines sited in mining areas are presented in this paper. This transducer allows measuring strains of pipelines subjected to external forces - being the mining operations effect. Pipeline strains can have a direct influence on a tightness loss and penetration of the transported fluid into the environment. The original strain gauge transducer was proposed for performing measurements of strains. It allows measuring circumferential strains and determining the value and direction of the main longitudinal strain. This strain is determined on the basis of measuring component longitudinal strains originating from axial forces and the resultant bending moment. The main purpose of investigations was the experimental verification of the possibility of applying the strain transducer for measuring strains of polyethylene pipelines. The obtained results of the transducer subjected to influences of tensile and compression forces are presented and tests of relaxation properties of polyethylene are performed.



Miroslava Holá, Jan Hrabina, Martin Sarbort, Jindrich Oulehla, Ondrej Cíp, Josef Lazar:

Contribution of the Refractive Index Fluctuations to the Length Noise in Displacement Interferometry

Abstract: We report on investigations of how fast changes of the refractive index influence the uncertainty of interferometric displacement measurements. Measurement of position within a limited range is typical for precise positioning of coordinate measuring systems, such as nanometrology standards combined with scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The varying refractive index of air contributes significantly to the overall uncertainty; it plays a role especially in case of longer-range systems. In our experiments we have observed that its fast variations, seen as length noise, are not linearly proportional to the measuring beam path and play a significant role only over distances longer than 50 mm. Thus, we found that over longer distances the length noise rises proportionally. The measurements were performed under conditions typical for metrology SPM systems.



Yuting Li, Fangji Gan, Zhengjun Wan, Junbi Liao and Wenqiang Li:

Novel Method for Sizing Metallic Bottom Crack Depth Using Multi-frequency Alternating Current Potential Drop Technique

Abstract: Potential drop techniques are of two types: the direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique and alternating current potential drop (ACPD) technique, and both of them are used in nondestructive testing. ACPD, as a kind of valid method in sizing metal cracks, has been applied to evaluate metal structures. However, our review of most available approaches revealed that some improvements can be done in measuring depth of metal bottom crack by means of ACPD, such as accuracy and sensitivity of shallow crack. This paper studied a novel method which utilized the slope of voltage ratio-frequency curve to solve bottom crack depth by using a simple mathematic equation based on finite element analysis. It is found that voltage ratio varies linearly with frequency in the range of 5–15 Hz; this range is slightly higher than the equivalent frequency and lower than semi-permeable frequency. Simulation and experiment show that the novel method can measure the bottom crack depth accurately.




No. 6  

  Theoretical Problems of Measurement


Ignacio Lira, Dieter Grientschnig:

Bayesian Analysis of a Simple Measurement Model Distinguishing between Types of Information

Abstract: Let a quantity of interest, Y, be modeled in terms of a quantity X and a set of other quantities Z. Suppose that for Z there is type B information, by which we mean that it leads directly to a joint state-of-knowledge probability density function (PDF) for that set, without reference to likelihoods. Suppose also that for X there is type A information, which signifies that a likelihood is available. The posterior for X is then obtained by updating its prior with said likelihood by means of Bayes’ rule, where the prior encodes whatever type B information there may be available for X. If there is no such information, an appropriate non-informative prior should be used. Once the PDFs for X and Z have been constructed, they can be propagated through the measurement model to obtain the PDF for Y, either analytically or numerically. But suppose that, at the same time, there is also information of type A, type B or both types together for the quantity Y. By processing such information in the manner described above we obtain another PDF for Y. Which one is right? Should both PDFs be merged somehow? Is there another way of applying Bayes’ rule such that a single PDF for Y is obtained that encodes all existing information? In this paper we examine what we believe should be the proper ways of dealing with such a (not uncommon) situation.


  Measurement of Physical Quantities


Jing Lei, Shi Liu:

Image Reconstruction Method with the Exploitation of the Spatial Correlation for Electrical Capacitance Tomography

Abstract: Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is considered to be a competitive measurement method. The imaging objects in ECT measurements are often in a time-varying process, and exploiting the prior information related to the dynamic nature is important for reconstructing high-quality images. Different from existing reconstruction models, in this paper a new model that incorporates the spatial correlation of the pixels by introducing the radial basis function (RBF) method, the dynamic behaviors of a time-varying imaging object, and the ECT measurement information is proposed to formulate the dynamic imaging problem. An objective functional that exploits the spatial correlation of the pixels, the combinational regularizer of the first-order total variation (FOTV) and the second-order total variation (SOTV), the multi-scale regularization, the spatial constraint, and the temporal correlation is proposed to convert the ECT imaging task into an optimization problem. A split Bregman iteration (SBI) method based iteration scheme is developed for solving the proposed objective functional. Numerical simulation results validate the superiority of the proposed reconstruction method on the improvement of the imaging quality.



Zhibin Miao, Hongtian Zhang, Jinzhu Zhang:

A Robust Method of Vehicle Stability Accurate Measurement Using GPS and INS

Abstract: With the development of the vehicle industry, controlling stability has become more and more important. Techniques of evaluating vehicle stability are in high demand. Integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) is a very practical method to get high-precision measurement data. Usually, the Kalman filter is used to fuse the data from GPS and INS. In this paper, a robust method is used to measure vehicle sideslip angle and yaw rate, which are two important parameters for vehicle stability. First, a four-wheel vehicle dynamic model is introduced, based on sideslip angle and yaw rate. Second, a double level Kalman filter is established to fuse the data from Global Positioning System and Inertial Navigation System. Then, this method is simulated on a sample vehicle, using Carsim software to test the sideslip angle and yaw rate. Finally, a real experiment is made to verify the advantage of this approach. The experimental results showed the merits of this method of measurement and estimation, and the approach can meet the design requirements of the vehicle stability controller.



Su Jun, O. Kochan, Wang Chunzhi, R. Kochan:

Theoretical and Experimental Research of Error of Method of Thermocouple with Controlled Profile of Temperature Field

Abstract: The method of study and experimental researches of the error of method of the thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field along the main thermocouple are considered in this paper. Experimentally determined values of error of method are compared to the theoretical estimations done using Newton’s law of cooling. They converge well.



Ivan Frollo, Andrej Krafčík, Peter Andris, Jiří Přibil, Tomáš Dermek:

Circular Samples as Objects for Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Mathematical Simulation, Experimental Results

Abstract: Circular samples are the frequent objects of "in-vitro" investigation using imaging method based on magnetic resonance principles. The goal of our investigation is imaging of thin planar layers without using the slide selection procedure, thus only 2D imaging or imaging of selected layers of samples in circular vessels, eppendorf tubes,.. compulsorily  using procedure "slide selection". In spite of that the standard imaging methods was used,  some specificity arise when mathematical modeling of these procedure is introduced. In the paper several  mathematical models were presented that were compared with real experimental results. Circular magnetic samples were placed into the homogenous magnetic field of a low field imager based on nuclear magnetic resonance. For experimental verification an MRI 0.178 Tesla ESAOTE Opera imager was used.



Gholamreza Anbarjafari:

An Objective No-Reference Measure of Illumination Assessment

Abstract: Illumination problems have been an important concern in many image processing applications. An important issue in the field of illumination enhancement is absence of a quantitative measure for assessment of illumination of an image. In this research work a quantitative measure indicating the illumination state, i.e. contrast level and brightness of an image is also proposed. The measure utilises the estimated Gaussian distribution of the input image and the Kullback-Leibler Divergence between the estimated Gaussian distribution and the desired Gaussian distribution to calculate the quantitative measure. The experimental results show the effectiveness and the reliability of proposed illumination assessment measure.



Stefan Oniga, Sütő József:

Optimal Recognition Method of Human Activities Using Artificial Neural Networks

Abstract: The aim of this research is an exhaustive analysis of the various factors that may influence the recognition rate of the human activity using wearable sensors data. We made a total of 1674 simulations on a publically released human activity database by a group of researcher from the University of California at Berkeley. In a previous research, we analyzed the influence of the number of sensors and their placement. In the present research we have examined the influence of the number of sensor nodes, the type of sensor node, preprocessing algorithms, type of classifier and its parameters. The final purpose is to find the optimal setup for best recognition rates with lowest hardware and software costs.




 No. 1    No. 2    No. 3   No. 4   No. 5   No. 6

Journal is open for your papers

 Download and print the front cover  ->>